Harvested Wood Products and Carbon Substitution
This study reviews approaches to accounting for carbon storage and carbon substitution benefits of harvested wood products under existing carbon market standards, and considers how the UK Woodland Carbon Code - which at present covers climate change mitigation benefits of afforestation in terms of carbon sequestration, might be extended.
Scientific review: approaches to carbon additionality
This page summarises Forest Research’s main conclusions and recommendations arising from its review of the underlying rationale and methodologies for carbon additionality calculations.
Review of approaches to carbon valuation, discounting and risk management
Establishing a framework that places a value on carbon
Background to the need for carbon valuation
The impact of greenhouse gases and higher temperatures and establishing a target stabilisation level
Estimating the social value of carbon
Approaches to valuing carbon and the potential impact of tighter targets and early emission reductions
Current (2020) UK government guidance on the social value of carbon
Estimates for 2009 and Treasury Green Book discount rates
Current (2020) relationship between social value of carbon and market price
2009 cap-and-trade schemes and shortcomings in the design and operation of markets
Carbon valuation: references
Scientific review: cost effectiveness of forestry for climate change mitigation
This page summarises the results of Forest Research’s calculations on the potential and cost-effectiveness of UK’s forests to mitigate climate change.
Payments for ecosystem services
Investigating a framework of incentives covering financing and paying for the benefits provided by ecosystems to households, communities and economies
Payments for Ecosystem Services (Forest for water)
The aim of the PESFOR-W COST Action is to synthesize knowledge, provide guidance and encourage collaborative research to improve Europe’s capacity to use Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES)
Marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) for UK forestry
This page summarises the results of Forest Research’s assessment of different approaches and methodologies for estimating marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) for the UK.
The Natural Environment Framework: estimating the value of new woodland
The page summarises findings from Forest Research’s work to estimate the expected net economic benefits that Forestry Commission Wales would deliver by meeting targets for new woodland set out in the Natural Environment Framework.
Valuation of Welsh Forest Resources
This study estimates using a natural capital accounting approach the value of five ecosystem goods and services provided by woodlands in Wales: standing timber, timber extraction, carbon sequestration, recreation and air quality improvement.
PESFOR-W COST Action
Gregory Valatin leads this 4-year COST Action that runs from 2016-2020, including chairing meetings.
Work Package and Work Areas leader
Gregory Valatin leads WP1 on Valuing Ecosystem Services and Benefits, and Work Areas 1.2 on Biophysical Ecosystem Services and 3.2 on Cost-benefit analysis of forestry options, organising/participating in meetings and reporting on progress.
LWEC Phytothreats project
Work Area leader
Gregory Valatin leads Work Areas 2.2 on cost-benefit analysis of nursery accreditation options
Valuing flood regulation services of existing forest cover to inform natural capital accounts
Background Forests are recognised to reduce flood flows, although the issue is complex and continues to be explored. While the processes of how trees affect the generation and conveyance of...
Behavioural policy 'nudges' to encourage woodland creation for climate change mitigation
Evidence indicates that woodland creation is generally a cost-effective method of climate change mitigation, when compared with a range of alternatives. However, engaging landowners and land managers in woodland creation...
Insights from behavioural economics for ecosystem services valuation and sustainability
Ecosystem services refer to the benefits or outputs that people derive from ecosystems. Following the publication of the UK National Ecosystem Assessment there has been a growing interest in assessing...
Timber, carbon and wind risk: towards an integrated model of optimal rotation length
Modern forest management practice increasingly adopts an ecosystem services approach to account for the multiple benefits and objectives of forestry. It is also increasingly linked to climate change adaptation and...
The economic and social contribution of forestry for people in Scotland - Summary report
Results of a research project aiming to provide a comprehensive valuation of the current social and economic benefits of Scottish forestry, forests and woodlands derived by the people of Scotland....
Comparing the cost-effectiveness of forestry options for climate change mitigation
This Research Note examines two recent studies which assessed the cost-effectiveness of forestry options for climate change mitigation across Great Britain.
How does a biodiversity value impact upon optimal rotation length? An investigation using species richness and forest stand age
A study integrating biodiversity data for British forests with economic modelling of optimal rotation length. Investigation revealed some evidence of relationships between overall species richness and stand age.
Peer reviewed papers
Kant, S., Deegan, P., Hostettler, M., Wang, S., Xu, J. and Valatin, G. 2016. New frontiers of forest economics: Forest economics beyond the perfectly competitive commodity markets, Forest Policy and Economics, 72, 1-6
Valatin, G., Moseley, D. and Dandy, N. 2016. Insights from behavioural economics for forest economics and environmental policy: Potential nudges to encourage woodland creation for climate change mitigation and adaptation? Forest Policy and Economics, 72, 27–36
Valatin. G. (2012). Additionality and climate change mitigation by the UK forest sector (PDF-773K). Forestry (2012) 85 (4): 445-462. doi: 10.1093/forestry/cps056.
Kant, S., Deegan, P., Hostettler, M., von Detten, R., Howard, T., Laband, D., Montgomery, C., Robert, N., Sekot, W., Valatin, G. and Zhang, D. 2013. New frontiers of forest economics, Forest Policy and Economics, 35, 1-8
Valatin, G.(2014). Carbon valuation in forestry and prospects for European harmonisation, Technical Report 97, European Forestry Institute.
Books and book chapters
Valatin, G. 2014. Additionality of climate change mitigation activities. In: Fenning, T. (ed). Challenges and Opportunities for the World’s Forests in the 21st Century, Springer, 341-373.
Valatin, G. and Price, C.(2014). How cost-effective is forestry for climate change mitigation? In: Fenning, T. (ed). Challenges and Opportunities for the World’s Forests in the 21st Century, Springer, 297-339.
Bateman, I., Abson, D., Beaumont, N. Darnell, A., Fezzi, C., Hanley, N., Kontoleon, A., Maddison, D., Morling, P., Morris, J., Mourato, S., Pascual, U., Perino, G., Sen, A., Tinch, D., Turner, K., and Valatin, G. (2011). UK Economic Values from Ecosystems, chapter 22 of UK National Ecosystem Assessment, UNEP-WCMC/Defra, London.
Quine, C., Cahalan, C., Hester, A., Humphrey, J., Kirby, K., Moffat, A. and Valatin, G. (2011). Woodlands, chapter 8 of UK National Ecosystem Assessment, UNEP-WCMC/Defra, London.
Ciccarese, L., Elsasser, P., Horattas, A., Pettenella, D. and Valatin, G. (2011). Innovative market opportunities related to carbon sequestration in European forests?, Chapter 9 of Weiss, G. et al (eds) Innovation in Forestry, CABI, Wallingford.
FC and FR publications
Barsoum, N., Gill, R., Henderson, L . Peace, A., Quine, C., Saraev, V. and Valatin, G. 2016. Biodiversity and rotation length: economic models and ecological evidence Research Note FCRN022, Forestry Commission
Moseley, D., Dandy, N., Edwards, D. and Valatin, G.(2014). Behavioural policy ‘nudges’ to encourage woodland creation for climate change mitigation, Research Report, Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.
Moseley, D. and Valatin, G.(2013). Insights from behavioural economics for ecosystem services valuation and sustainability, Research Report, Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.
Valatin, G.(2012). Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for UK Forestry, Research Report 19, Forestry Commission, Edinburgh. (MANFORC).
Valatin, G. (2011). Forests and carbon: a review of additionality (PDF-559K). Research Report 13, Forestry Commission, Edinburgh, 2011.
Valatin, G. (2011). Forests and carbon: valuation, discounting and risk management (PDF-1168K). Research Report 12, Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.
Contract and project reports
Nisbet, T., Roe, P., Marrington, S., Thomas, H., Broadmeadow, S. and Valatin, G. 2015. Slowing the Flow at Pickering, Final Report to Defra of FCERM Multi-objective Flood Management Demonstration Project RMP5455: Phase II
Ambrose-Oji, B., Valatin, G., Stewart, A., Sarajevs, V. and Handley, P.(2012). Evaluation of the Better Woodlands for Wales Grant Scheme. Report to Forestry Commission Wales, Forest Research, Edinburgh.
Nisbet, T., Marrington, S., Thomas, H., Broadmeadow, S. and Valatin, G. (2011). Slowing the Flow at Pickering. Final Report to Defra of FCERM Multi-objective Flood Management Demonstration Project RMP5455.
Valatin, G. and Starling, J. (2011). Valuation of ecosystem services provided by UK Woodlands, appendix to chapter 22 of UK National Ecosystem Assessment, UNEP-WCMC/Defra, London.
Hutchings, T., et al 2010. Benefits of Green Infrastructure. Report to Defra and CLG. Forest Research. Farnham
Valatin, G. (n.d.) Cost-effectiveness of Agroforestry options for NH3 Abatement as Climate Change Mitigation measure. Section 5.2 in Bealey, W., Braban, C., Theobald, M., Famulari, D., Tang, Y., Wheat, A., Grigorova, E., Leeson, S., Twigg, M., Dragosits, U., Dore, A., Sutton, M., Nemitz, E., Loubet, B., Robertson, A., Quinn, A., Williams, A., Sandars, D., Valatin, G., Perks, M., and Watterson D.. Agroforestry Systems for Ammonia Abatement. Report AC0201 for Defra, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh.
Valatin, G. 2017. Woodlands & the Carbon-Water Policy Nexus: A UK perspective. Invited seminar, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan, 12th January.
Valatin, G. 2016. Behavioural Policy Nudges to encourage woodland creation for Climate Change Mitigation in the UK. Invited presentation, Vth Forest Ecosystem Services Forum, Wellington, New Zealand, 24th May.
Valatin, G., Moseley, D. and Dandy, N. 2015. Insights from Behavioural Economics for forest economics: potential policy nudges to encourage woodland creation for climate change mitigation and adaptation? IUFRO workshop on New Frontiers of Forest Economics, Peking University, Beijing, China, August 17th-23rd.
Valatin, G. 2015. The ‘Slowing the Flow’ project: flood risk reduction & ecosystem services of upland forests. Invited presentation, SENSFOR COST Action, James Hutton Institute, Aberdeen, Oct 9th.
Bedru, B. and Valatin, G. 2014. Green accounting as an alternative measure to GDP – international experiences and challenges ahead. ESCOM Scotland Conference, 1st May.
Moseley, D., Nijnik, M., Miller, D., Valatin, G., Edwards, D. and Nijnik, A. 2014. How people make decisions and value ecosystem services: tools to develop and direct policy for woodland expansion. ESCOM Scotland Conference, 1st May.
Nijnik, M., Edwards, D. and Valatin, G. 2014. Exploring climate regulatory forest services from a social science perspective. ESCOM Scotland Conference, 1st May.
Valatin, G. 2014. Insights from Behavioural Economics for Global Sustainability. A Community on Ecosystem Services (ACES) Conference, Washington DC, USA, Dec.
Valatin, G. 2013. Incentives for Climate Change Mitigation by the Forest Sector: A UK perspective. Low Carbon Summit, Xi’an, China, https://vimeo.com/77774460, Sept.
Valatin, G. 2012. Discussion of ‘ECOSEL’ paper (Multi-Objective Optimization to Sell Forest Ecosystem Services). IUFRO workshop on New Frontiers of Forest Economics, Zurich, Switzerland, June.
Valatin, G. 2012. Woodland carbon & Incentives for Climate Change Mitigation by the UK Forest Sector. Invited presentation, EFI workshop, Nancy, France, May.
Valatin, G. 2011. Carbon Sequestration, Ecosystem Services & Incentives for Climate Change Mitigation by the UK Forest Sector. Ecosystem Services Partnership, Wageningen, the Netherlands, Oct.
Valatin, G. 2010. Ecosystem Services & PES schemes. Invited presentation, Institute of Chartered Foresters, Regional meeting, Staffordshire, 10th Nov.
Saraev, V., Peace, A. Valatin, G. and Quine, C. 2017. Biodiversity and stand age: modelling an ecosystem service impact on optimal rotation length, ENVECON conference, Royal Society, London, 3rd March.
Valatin, G. 2013. Cost-effectiveness of forestry for climate change mitigation, CONFOR Annual Conference, Glasgow, April.
Valatin, G. 2013. Payments for Ecosystem Services, CONFOR Annual Conference, Glasgow, April.