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Themes: Ecosystem services

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  • Publications

    [Archive] The private woodlands survey

    Lead Author: C.P. Mitchell
    In 1990, the future of the Private Woodlands Survey was reconsidered by the Forestry Commission. Its original purpose had been to inform interested parties on reviews of planting grants. In recent years, however, a change in the economic rationale underlying grant-aid to private woodland owners has been increasingly recognised. This means that the primary basis […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Management of forests for capercaillie in Scotland

    Lead Author: Robert Moss
    The aim of this Bulletin is to summarise the best current information about the birds’ requirements and to provide guidelines for forest management which will benefit capercaillie. As far as possible, we base our recommendations on well-documented facts. Where hard data are not available, we make informed guesses based on anecdotal natural history and casual […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Wildlife rangers handbook

    Lead Author: G.D. Springthorpe
    This Handbook is based on the creative conservation employed at Cannock. It is a manual written by working wildlife rangers for working wildlife rangers, and it will benefit shy and endangered wildlife and the public who can now enjoy them. The Handbook includes sections on: the ranger and forestry, wildlife and conservation, crop protection, deer […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Black grouse and forestry: habitat requirements and management

    Lead Author: John Cayford
    The black grouse is a large, sexually dimorphic species found typically in habitats transitional between moorland and forest. Numbers of black grouse have recently declined throughout much of Europe. In Britain, the species is now largely confined to Scotland, the north of England and Wales. Continued loss and fragmentation of habitat represents the most serious […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] The value of birch in upland forests for wildlife conservation

    Lead Author: Gordon S. Patterson
    Broadleaved trees and shrubs are frequently scarce in upland forests in Britain, and national policy is to increase the proportion of broadleaves because of their value as wildlife habitat. Birches (Betula pubescens Ehrh. and Betula pendula Roth.) are between them adapted to succeed on a wide range of soils and are the commonest native trees […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Invertebrate animals as indicators of acidity in upland streams

    Lead Author: G.S Patterson
    Studies in the UK and elsewhere have shown that acid freshwater habitats have different floras and faunas and fewer species in most taxonomic groups, when compared with near-neutral waters. The presence or absence of certain common species that are sensitive to acid waters can be used to assess the prevailing chemistry of a water body. […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Roe deer biology and management

    Lead Author: P.R. Ratcliffe
    Roe deer are distributed widely in Great Britain and are managed for a number of reasons including the reduction of impact on trees and vegetation and their exploitation as a game species. Population data, especially on survivorship, on which to base management plans, are difficult to obtain and have previously been unavailable. This Bulletin gives […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Woodland management for pheasants

    Lead Author: P.A. Robertson
    This Bulletin summarises the findings of a 3-year study sponsored by the Forestry Commission and carried out by the Game Conservancy. The study undertook to quantify habitat requirements of pheasants, to assess the benefits or disadvantages to pheasants of different forms of woodland management and to investigate the effects of managing woods for pheasants on […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Monitoring vegetation changes in conservation management of forests

    Lead Author: R. Ferris-Kaan
    Monitoring should be an integral part of conservation management in forests. It provides managers with information on the status and trend of species or habitats, and indicates whether specific goals have been achieved. Vegetation assessments can be used to monitor habitat quality as well as plant and species composition. Plants can be more easily monitored […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Forests and surface water acidification

    Lead Author: T.R. Nisbet
    This Bulletin reviews the evidence for a suggested forest effect in the acidification of surface waters in Great Britain. Acid deposition from the atmosphere within susceptible areas of Britain has affected fresh water flora and fauna, causing the decline and in some instances the complete loss of fish populations. Currently there is a debate about […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Barn owl conservation in forests

    Lead Author: G. Shaw
    Barn owl numbers have declined over much of the British Isles. However, in northern Britain afforestation has resulted in some local increases. Young plantations with rank grassy vegetation contain large numbers of field voles which are the main food of barn owls. Abandoned farm buildings provide nest sites for the owls, but these deteriorate and […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Forest bird communities

    Lead Author: S.J. Petty
    This review discusses the ecology and management of forest bird communities in relation to silvicultural practices in the British uplands. The review provides forest managers with information on how bird communities function in a dynamic forest environment and what foresters can do to achieve a richer, better balanced avifauna within their forest. It also provides […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Goshawks: their status, requirements and management

    Lead Author: S.J. Petty
    The goshawk is a large bird of prey which was re-introduced into Britain in the 1960s and 1970s. Populations are now beginning to expand, particularly in areas with large forests, and where human persecution is not a limiting factor. It is predicted that goshawks will become relatively common in some parts of Britain by the […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Taxation of woodlands

    Lead Author: Forestry Commission
    This Bulletin explains the taxation of woodlands for the benefit of woodland occupiers (and their advisers). Part 1 deals with income tax and corporation tax following the major changes to the taxation of commercial woodlands made by the Finance Act 1988. Part 2 deals with the application of capital gains tax to disposals of woodlands. […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Lichens in southern woodlands

    Lead Author: K. Broad
    A working knowledge of lichen ecology is important to most foresters. The study of lichens can reveal a good deal of important information about the age, health and management history of the woodlands where they are found – whether or not it is ‘ancient' woodland, for example, or the prevalence of atmospheric pollution in the […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Technology transfer in forestry

    Lead Author: G.H. Moeller (Ed)
    This Bulletin contains papers presented at the second Subject Group meeting held at Edinburgh University, Edinburgh, Scotland, 25 July-1 August 1983. The need for efficient transfer of new forestry knowledge is critical throughout all the various IUFRO Subject Groups. Group S6.08 serves as a clearing-house for ideas related to procedures, processes and methods for application […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Forestry and farming in upland Britain

    Lead Author: Forestry Commission
    The papers presented here were written for the 1979 meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science at Heriot Watt University in Edinburgh. The range of subject is comprehensive, covering productive agriculture and forestry and their future inter-relations in the uplands, wildlife conservation, public recreation, landscaping, and social needs and implications.
  • Publications

    [Archive] Wildlife conservation in woodlands

    Lead Author: R.C. Steele
    The aim of this Booklet is to show how woodlands managed mainly for wood production can be improved as habitats for wildlife. It is concerned with identifying those features of woodlands which promote wildlife conservation and suggesting how these features can be maintained or introduced by management. It suggests that wildlife conservation can and should […]