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  • Publications

    [Archive] Forest fertilisation in Britain

    Lead Author: C.M.A. Taylor
    In Britain the use of fertilisers has greatly increased the productivity of forests growing on nutrient-poor soils. In fact, many sites could not otherwise have been successfully afforested. From the early pioneering work of Stirling-Maxwell to the present day, the Forestry Commission has continually tested rates and types of fertiliser and methods of application. A […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Barn owl conservation in forests

    Lead Author: G. Shaw
    Barn owl numbers have declined over much of the British Isles. However, in northern Britain afforestation has resulted in some local increases. Young plantations with rank grassy vegetation contain large numbers of field voles which are the main food of barn owls. Abandoned farm buildings provide nest sites for the owls, but these deteriorate and […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Monitoring of forest condition in Great Britain – 1989

    Lead Author: J.L. Innes
    The results of the 1989 forest condition monitoring programme are presented. A total of 7436 trees were assessed, with the species being restricted to Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), Norway spruce (P. abies), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), oak (Quercus spp.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica). Crown condition is now assessed on the basis of a variety of […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Nitrogen deficiency in sitka spruce plantations

    Lead Author: C.M.A Taylor
    On moorland and heathland soils in Great Britain nitrogen deficiency can severely restrict the growth of certain conifer species, including Sitka spruce, the main commercial species. Until the 1970s this was thought to be due solely to competition from heather and was commonly known as ‘heather check’. However, increased planting of Sitka spruce on very […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Poplars for wood production and amenity

    Lead Author: J. Jobling
    The eleven chapters comprising this Bulletin cover the botany, cultivation, performances and utilisation of poplars and poplar timber. The genus Populus comprises some 32 species classified according to their botanical characters into five sections and one sub-section. Of these, the sections Aigeiros (the black poplars) and Tacamahaca (the balsam poplars) are of commercial significance to […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] The timbers of farm woodland trees

    Lead Author: J.D. Brazier
    Farmers are being encouraged to grow trees on surplus agricultural land as part of government policy effected through the Farm Woodland Scheme. The efficient production of timber is profitable, providing raw material for industry, yet it does not preclude other important objectives such as landscape design, amenity considerations, game management and wildlife conservation. The production […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Forests and surface water acidification

    Lead Author: T.R. Nisbet
    This Bulletin reviews the evidence for a suggested forest effect in the acidification of surface waters in Great Britain. Acid deposition from the atmosphere within susceptible areas of Britain has affected fresh water flora and fauna, causing the decline and in some instances the complete loss of fish populations. Currently there is a debate about […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Monitoring of forest condition in the United Kingdom – 1988

    Lead Author: J.L. Innes
    The condition of forests in the United Kingdom is monitored through two projects undertaken by the Forestry Commission. The first, referred to throughout this publication as the long-term monitoring project, was started in 1984. It was developed in response to a growing concern that air pollution might be affecting the condition of trees in Britain. […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] The 1987 storm: impacts and responses

    Lead Author: A.J. Grayson (Ed)
    The storm which struck south-east England on the night of 15/16 October 1987 was the worst in the region since 1703: it caused more damage to woodlands and trees than any other recorded gale in Britain. Some 4 million cubic metres of timber were blown, equivalent to about 5 years’ cut in the seven worst […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Dendroctonus micans in Britain – it’s biology and control

    Lead Author: C.J. King
    The great European spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus micans) was first identified as a breeding species in Britain in 1982. This insect’s distribution, pest status, biology, life cycle and control methods are described. Although its present population is limited to Wales, the English West Midlands and Lancashire, it is well established. Infestations are characterised by scattered […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Goshawks: their status, requirements and management

    Lead Author: S.J. Petty
    The goshawk is a large bird of prey which was re-introduced into Britain in the 1960s and 1970s. Populations are now beginning to expand, particularly in areas with large forests, and where human persecution is not a limiting factor. It is predicted that goshawks will become relatively common in some parts of Britain by the […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] A systems approach to forest operations planning and control

    Lead Author: M.A. Pritchard (Ed)
    Computer-based systems are now commonplace in most forestry operating environments. One of the inherent features of forestry everywhere is the amount of data collected over long periods of time. Information technology has made the storage and analysis of these data a cost effective reality. Never before has the forest manager been better placed to call […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Taxation of woodlands

    Lead Author: Forestry Commission
    This Bulletin explains the taxation of woodlands for the benefit of woodland occupiers (and their advisers). Part 1 deals with income tax and corporation tax following the major changes to the taxation of commercial woodlands made by the Finance Act 1988. Part 2 deals with the application of capital gains tax to disposals of woodlands. […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Natural regeneration of broadleaves

    Lead Author: J. Evans
    Natural regeneration can broadly be defined as raising a forest crop without resorting to planting, direct sowing or coppicing. It is the random nature of exactly where young trees spring up on a site and sometimes of the species which grow that marks out natural regeneration, not freedom from man’s influence. Indeed, many naturally regenerated […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Farm woodland planning

    Lead Author: H. Insley (Ed)
    This Bulletin is intended to provide farmers and farm advisers who are planning to enter farm woodland planting and management with the management information required to plan and budget the operation. It seeks to achieve this by providing the facts farmers need to gear up their businesses in terms of planning, financial and operational aspects […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Forest health surveys 1987 Part 2: Analysis and interpretation

    Lead Author: J.L. Innes
    The aim of this part of the report is to interpret, as far as possible, the results of the 1987 survey of forest health (Bulletin 74) by attempting to establish the cause(s) of the low crown densities and the crown discoloration observed in five of our most important tree species: Sitka spruce, Norway spruce, Scots […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] British softwoods: properties and uses

    Lead Author: T. Harding
    This Bulletin provides the information for specifiers and users to make maximum use of the increasing British resource of softwoods. Its main purpose is to establish the link between requirements for current and potential end-uses and the properties and performance of these commercially important timbers. A guide to the properties of the individual species is […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Silvicultural principles for upland restocking

    Lead Author: P.M. Tabbush
    Current upland restocking practice was reviewed in Forestry Commission Leaflet 84 Guide to upland restocking practice. Recent research, both in the UK and overseas, has led to a greater understanding of the establishment process, and the intention here is to draw this body of knowledge together as a basis for the design of improved systems […]