Sue Benham

BSc (Hons), PGC

Related research

Research topic

Integrated forest monitoring

About the Level I, Level II, environmental change network, FutMon and Biosoil programmes

Status: Current


  • Climate change
  • Forest management
  • Ecosystem services
Research topic

Environmental Change Network

Analysing and predicting environmental change

Status: Current


  • Climate change
Research topic

Environmental Change Network - Chronosequencing of vegetation data

Preliminary investigation into the effects of climate change on oak and Corsican pine.

Status: Current
Research topic

Environmental Change Network - Ecological survey of Straits enclosure

Results of a complete ecological survey of the Straits Enclosure research site for four time points during the 1999-2000 growing season

Status: Current
Research topic

Further development and implementation of an EU-level forest monitoring system (FutMon)

Creation of a pan-European long term forest monitoring system

Status: Completed


  • Climate change
Research topic

Intensive long term monitoring of forest ecosystems (Level II)

Level II programme of environmental monitoring to provide an understanding of the impact of air pollution and other factors which influence forest ecosystems

Status: Current


  • Climate change
Research topic

Large scale diversity and distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungi

A multi-partner Europe wide transdisciplinary project to understand the large-scale diversity and distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungi across Europe, taking into account long-term monitoring of environment, climate, soil and geographical variables.

Status: Current


  • Climate change
  • Forest management
  • Soil science

Peer reviewed journal articles

Etzold, S, Ferretti, M, Benham, S et al.  Continental-scale forest growth in Europe is driven by management and further modulated by nitrogen deposition submitted to Forest Ecol and Management (2020) 458, 117762

S Rennie, C Andrews, S Atkinson, D Beaumont, S Benham, V Bowmaker, J Dick, B Dodd, C McKenna, D Pallett, R. Rose, S. M. Schäfer, T. Scott, C. Taylor, and H. Watson. The UK Environmental Change Network datasets – integrated and co-located data for long-term environmental research (1993–2015). Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 87–107, 2020

Ashwood, F., Vanguelova, E.I., Benham, S. et al. Developing a systematic sampling method for earthworms in and around deadwood. (2019) For. Ecosyst. (2019) 6: 33.

Quine, C.P., Atkinson, N., Denman, S. Desprez-Loustau, M-L., Jackson, R., Kirby, K. (eds) 2019 Action Oak Knowledge review : an assessment of the current evidence on oak health, identification of evidence gaps and prioritisation of research needs. . Action Oak, Haslemere, UK

Ashwood F, Benham S, Vanguelova E, Watts K (2019). Woodland restoration on agricultural land: long-term impacts on soil quality Restoration Ecology DOI:10.1111/rec.13003

Weather cues for mast fruiting in common beech, sessile and common oak, Norway spruce and Scots pine in Europe (2018). Anita Nussbaumer, P Waldner, S. Benham et al.  Forest Ecology and Management 429 (2018) 336-350.

Guerrieri, R., Vanguelova, E., Pitman, R., Benham, S., Perks, M., Morison, J., Mencuccini, M. (2018). Climate overrides atmospheric deposition in affecting spatial and temporal changes in forest water-use efficiency and nitrogen availability across Britain. Under review in Nature.

Environment and host as large-scale controls of ectomycorrhizal fungi (2018) Sietse van der Linde, L.M. Suz, D L. Orme, F Cox, H Andreae, E Asi, B Atkinson, S Benham, C Carroll, N Cools, B De Vos, H Dietrich, J Eichhorn, J Gehrmann, T Grebenc, H.S Gweon, K Hansen, F Jacob, F Kristöfel, P Lech, M Manninger, J Martin, H Meesenburg, P Merilä, M Nicolas, P Pavlenda, P Rautio, M Schaub, H Schröck, W Seidling, V Šrámek, A Thimonier, I.M Thomsen, H Titeux, E Vanguelova, A Verstraeten, L Vesterdal, P Waldner, S Wijk, Y Zhang, D Žlindra M.I Bidartondo. Nature (2018) doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0189-9

Quantifying Carbon and Nutrient Input from Litterfall in European Forests using Field Observations and Modelling, (2018). Mathias Neumann, Liisa Ukonmaanaho, James Johnson, Sue Benham, Lars Vesterdal, Radek Novotný, Arne Verstraeten, Lars Lundin, Anne Thimonier, Panagiotis Michopoulos, Hubert Hasenauer , Biogeochemistry, (2018) Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 737-901 DOI:10.1029/2017GB005825

Vanguelova E.I., Crow, P., Benham, S., Pitman, R., Forster, J., Eaton, E.L., Morison, J.I.L. (2017) Impact of Sitka spruce afforestation on the carbon stocks of peaty gley soils - a chronosequence study in the north of England. Forestry 2019; 92, 242–252

Vanguelova, E. Pitman, R, Benham, S. Perks, M. Morison, J.I (2017) Impact of Tree Stump Harvesting on Soil Carbon and Nutrients and Second Rotation Tree Growth in Mid-Wales, UK .Open Journal of Forestry, 2017, 7, 58-78

Vanguelova, E.I, Crow, P., Benham, S. (2016) Impact of Sitka spruce afforestation on the Carbon stock of peaty gley soils – a chronosequence study in the north of England .Forestry-2016-174.

Nussbaumer, A. Waldner, P. Benham, S. et al. (2016) Patterns of mast fruiting of common beech, sessile and common oak, Norway spruce and Scots pine in Central and Northern Europe. Forest Ecology and Management 363:237-251

Monteith, D. Henrys, P. Benham,S. et al.(2016) Trends and variability in weather and atmospheric deposition at UK Environmental Change Network sites (1993–2012), Ecological Indicators, Volume 68, September 2016, Pages 21-35, ISSN 1470-160X,

Rose, R. Monteith, DT, Benham, S. et al (2016) Evidence for increases in vegetation species richness across UK Environmental Change Network sites linked to changes in air pollution and weather patterns, Ecological Indicators, Volume 68, September 2016, Pages 52-62, ISSN 1470-160X

Dick,J.Andrews, C. Beaumont,D.A. Benham, S. et al. (2016) Analysis of temporal change in delivery of ecosystem services over 20 years at long term monitoring sites of the UK Environmental Change Network, Ecological Indicators, Volume 68, September 2016, Pages 115-125, ISSN 1470-160X,

Waldner, P. Thimonier, A., Graf Pannatier, E., Benham S, Vanguelova E et al. (2015) Exceedance of critical loads and of critical limits impacts tree nutrition across Europe. Annals of Forest Science,DOI 10.1007/s13595-015-0489-2

Matthew R. Evans, Aristides Moustakas, Gregory Carey, Yadvinder Malhi, Nathalie Butt, Sue Benham, Denise Pallett & Stefanie Schäfer. (2015) Allometry and growth of eight tree taxa in United Kingdom woodlands. Sci. Data 2:150006 doi: 10.1038/sdata.2015.6 (2015).

Suz,LM. Benham, S., Cheffings, C., Cox, F., Hackett, L., Jones, A,G., Mueller, G.M. et al. (2015) Monitoring ectomycorrhizal fungi at large scales for science, forest management,fungal conservation and environmental policy Annals of Forest science. DOI 10.1007/s13595-014-0447-4

Suz,L.M., Benham,S.,Dietrich, H.P., Bidartondo M,I, et al .(2014) 'Environmental drivers of ectomycorrhizal communities in Europe's temperate oak forests Molecular Ecology; DOI:10.1111/mec.12947

Waldner, P, Marchetto, A,Thimonier, A,Schmitt, M,Rogora, M,Granke, O,Mues, V,Hansen, K,Pihl Karlsson, G,Zlindra, D,Clarke, N,Verstraeten, A, Lazdins, A,Schimming, C,Iacoban, C,Lindroos, A-J,Vanguelova, E,Benham, S, Meesenburg, H,Nicolas, M,Kowalska, A,Apuhtin, V,Nappa, U,Lachmanova, Z,Kristoefel, F,Bleeker, A,Ingerslev, M,Vesterdal, L,Molina, J, Fischer, U,Seidling, W,Jonard, M,O'Dea, P,Johnson, J,Fischer, R, andLorenz, M(2014) Detection of temporal trends in atmospheric deposition of inorganic nitrogen and sulphate to forests in Europe.

Jonard, M.,Fürst, A. Verstraeten, A. Benham,S. et al, (2014) Tree mineral nutrition is deteriorating in Europe, Global Change Biology DOI:10.1111/gcb.12657

Mathieu Jonard, Alfred Fürst Arne Verstraeten, Anne Thimonier, Volkmar Timmermann, Nenad Potočić, Peter Waldner, Sue Benham, Karin Hansen, Päivi Merilä, Quentin Ponette, Ana C de la Cruz, Peter Roskams, Manuel Nicolas, Luc Croisé, Morten Ingerslev, Giorgio Matteucci, Bruno Decinti, Marco Bascietto and Pasi Rautio, (2014) Tree mineral nutrition is deteriorating in Europe. Global Change Biology DOI:10.1111/gcb.12657

Ed Tipping, Sue Benham, Peter Crow (2014) Atmospheric deposition of phosphorus to land and freshwater. Environmental Science Processes and Impacts. DOI 10.1039/c3em00641g

Rona Pitman; Sue Benham; Jane Poole (2013) A chronosequence study of soil nutrient status under oak and Corsican pine with Ellenberg assessed ground vegetation changes. Forestry 2013; doi: 10.1093/forestry/cpt051

Benham, S.E., Vanguelova, E.I., Pitman, R.M. (2012). Short and long term changes in carbon, nitrogen and acidity in the forest soils under oak at the Alice Holt Environmental Change Network site. Science of The Total Environment 420. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.02.004.

Pitman, R., Vanguelova, E.I. & Benham, S. (2010). Effects of phytophagous insects on water and soil nutrient concentrations and fluxes through forest stands in the Level II monitoring network in the UK. Science of the Total Environment 409 169-181

Benham, S.E., Broadmeadow, M.S.J., Schaub, M., Calatayud, V. & Bussotti, F. (2010). Using commercial tree nurseries to monitor visible ozone injury - an evaluation. Forest Ecology and Management 260: 1824–1831.

Vanguelova, E.I., Benham, S., Pitman, R., Moffat, A. Broadmeadow, M., Nisbet, T., Durrant, D., Barsoum, N.,Wilkinson, M., Bochereau, F., Broadmeadow, S., Hutchings, T., Crow, P., Durrant-Huston, T. & Taylor, P. (2010). Chemical fluxes in time through forest ecosystems in the UK – soil response to pollution recovery. Environmental Pollution 158: 1857-1869.

Book and book chapters (including published conference proceedings)

Benham, S. E., Houston Durrant, T., Caudullo, G., de Rigo, D., (2016).Taxus baccata in Europe: distribution, habitat, usage and threats. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., HoustonDurrant, T., Mauri, A. (Eds.), European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Publ. Off. EU, Luxembourg, pp. e015921+

Vanguelova E., Benham S (2015) Long-term trends and effects of air pollution on British forests and soils 4th ICP forests scientific conference 2015.

Vanguelova E., Benham S. (2016) Base cations and nitrogen budgets of forest ecosystems in the UK (Tracing air pollution and climate change effects on forest ecosystems:trend and risk assessments) 5th ICP forests scientific conference Luxembourg 2016

Vanguelova, E, Pitman, R., Benham, S., Wilkinson, M., Komarov, A., Khoraskina, Y. and Bykhovets, S. (2011). Long term changes in soil carbon at Alice Holt forest modelled by ROMUL (forest soil organic matter process model). Proceedings of EU COST 0803 meeting “Carbon balance after disturbances and drought”, 27 June -1 July, 2011, Barcelona, Spain.

Pitman, R., Vanguelova, E., Benham, S and Perks, M. (2011). Impacts of tree stump removal on soil carbon, soil nutrients and tree growth in UK. Proceedings, “Tree stumps for Bioenergy” Symposium, 24-26 October, 2011, Uppsala, Sweden.

Moffat, A.J., Benham, S., Morison, J.I.L., Pitman, R., Vanguelova, E.I., Wilkinson, M. and Yamulki, S. (2010). The value of forest monitoring in developing forest ecosystem science in Britain. In: John Derome – Ambassador for forest monitoring in Europe, L. Ukonmaanaho, K. Derome, P. Rautio and P. Merilä (eds), Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 180, p. 28.

FC and FR publications including official statistics

Vanguelova E. Benham S. Crow P, Denman S. (2016) Soil nutrition and status of the Major Oak Tree Sherwood Forest Report Oct 2016 Forest Research

Pitman, R., Vanguelova, E. and Benham, S. (2011). Continuous Cover Forestry effects on soil properties and ground vegetation at Clocaenog, N. Wales. Forest Research report, 18 pages.

Vanguelova, E., Pitman, R., Benham, S. And Perks, M. (2011). Impact of destumping forest management on soil carbon and nutrients and second rotation Sitka spruce growth at Bala destumping site in Wales. Forest Research Report, 20 pages.

Contract and project reports – excluding any which are commercially confidential

GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM 2014 NUTRIENT AVAILABILITY COULD CONSTRAINT FOREST ECOSYSTEM RESPONSE TO GLOBAL CHANGE IN EUROPE Mathieu Jonard1, Alfred Fürst2, Arne Verstraeten3, Anne Thimonier4, Volkmar Timmermann5, Nenad Potočić6, Peter Waldner4, Sue Benham7, Karin Hansen8, Päivi Merilä9, Quentin Ponette1, Ana C de la Cruz10, Peter Roskams3, Manuel Nicolas11, Luc Croisé11, Morten Ingerslev12, Giorgio Matteucci13, Bruno Decinti14, Marco Bascietto14 and Pasi Rautio

Waldner, P., Thimonier, A., Schmitt, M., Marchetto, A., Rogora, M., Granke, O., Mues, V., Hansen, K., Pihl-Karlsson, G., Zlindra, D., Clarke, N., Verstraeten, A., Lazdins, A., Schimming, C., Iacoban, C., Lindroos, A.-J., Vanguelova, E., Benham, S., Meesenburg, H., Nicolas, M., Kowalska, A., Apuhtin, V., Nappa, U., Lachmanová, Z., Neumann, M., Bleeker, A., Ingerslev, M., Molina, J., Vesterdal, L., Seidling, W., Fischer, U., Fischer, R. & Lorenz, M., 2012: Sulphate and nitrogen deposition and trend analyses. In: M. Lorenz & G. Becher (eds.), Technical Report of ICP Forests ICP Forests, Thünen Institute for World Forestry, Hamburg, p. 60-76.

Benham S (2012) The effects of visitor trampling to the Kingley Vale yews.- Natural England 2012.

Older publications

Morecroft, M.D., Bealey, C.E., Beaumont, D.A. & S Benham, S. et al. (2009). The UK Environmental Change Network: Emerging trends in the composition of plant and animal communities and the physical environment. Biological Cons.142 2814-2832.

Mosello, R., Amoriello, T., Benham, S., Clarke, N., Derome, J., Derome, K., Genouw, G., Koenig, N., Orru, A., Tartari, G., Thimonier, A., Ulrich, E.& Lindross, A. (2008). Validation of chemical analyses of atmospheric deposition on forested sites in Europe : 2. DOC concentration as an estimator of organic ion charge. J. Limnol. 67(1): 1-14.

Benham. S. (2008). The Environmental Change Network at Alice Holt Research Forest (PDF-517K). Forestry Commission Research Note.

Crow, P. & Benham, S. et al. (2007). Woodland vegetation and its implications for archaeological survey using LiDAR. Forestry. 80 (3) pp 241-252.

Vanguelova, E.I., Benham, S. & Pitman R. (2007). Changes in rainfall, throughfall and soil solution chemistry in the Level II long term forest monitoring plots. In Derome, J., Lindroos, A.J. and Kilponen, T. (eds.). Scientific Seminar on Forest Condition Monitoring and Ecosystem Functioning in Northern Europe under the Forest Focus and ICP Forests Programmes, Vantaa 27. – 28.11.2007. ISBN 978-951-40-2088-9 (PDF); ISSN 1795-150X.

Vangulova, E., Barsoum, N., Benham, S., Broadmeadow, M., Nisbet, T.,& Pitman, R. (2007). Ten yearsof intensive environmental monitoring in British forests (PDF-1295K). Forestry Commission Information Note.

Pitts, A., Benham, S., Straw, N.A.& Moffat, A.J. (2005). Evaluation of moth-trap data from Alice Holt Forest, Hampshire 1966-2001: possible effects of changing climate on Macrolepidoptera. Entomologist's Gazette 56 237-247.

Houston, T.J, Durrant, D.W,& Benham, S.E. (2002). Sampling in a variable environment: selection of representative positions of throughfall collectors for volume and chemistry under three tree species in the UK., Forest Ecology and Management. 158, 1-8.

The Science at the heart of Alice Holt Forest. Forestry Commission publication, 2001.

The United Kingdom Environmental Change Network Annual Data Digest. 1996 onwards.

Dick, J., Andrews, C., Beaumont, D. A., Benham, S., Brooks, D. R., Corbett, S., Lloyd, D., McMillan, S., Monteith, D. T., Pilgrim, E. S., Rose, R., Scott, A., Scott,T., Smith, R. I., Taylor, C., Taylor, M., Turner, A. and Watson, H. (2011). A comparison of ecosystem services delivered by 11 long-term monitoring sites in the UK environmental change network. Environmetrics 22 (2). DOI: 10.1002/env.1069.