Reducing the impact of non-native or invasive vertebrates to forestry
Research programme to support the management of conflicts caused by vertebrate species and their impacts in woodlands and provide information to support policy makers and practitioners in delivery of forest policy targets. Research areas cover mammal damage to trees and woodland and management of non-native or invasive vertebrates
Management of non-native or invasive vertebrates
Choosing species to be researched and links to species chosen
Researching management of feral wild boar
About the the wild boar, its population and current research
Impacts of large herbivores on woodlands
Reducing damage caused by large herbivores and use as management tool to achieve biodiversity objectives
Impacts of large herbivores on woodlands - Assessing impact of beavers
Testing methods of monitoring the impact of beavers on woodland vegetation surrounding the proposed re-introduction site in Knapdale, Scotland
Impacts of large herbivores on woodlands - Assessment methods for overgrazing in upland woodlands
Assessing when unacceptable conditions are caused by overgrazing
Impacts of large herbivores on woodlands - Survey of cattle grazed woodlands in Britain
Cattle are thought to provide biodiversity benefits in woodlands when grazed at low density
Mammal damage to trees and woodland
Reducing the impact of mammal damage and of deer fences on sensitive species such as woodland grouse
Management of grey squirrels
Develop cost effective methods of managing grey squirrels. Investigate the impact of grey squirrels on woodland biodiversity.
Management of roe deer in the peri-urban environment
The page summarises a project funded by Deer Commission Scotland to document interactions between people and roe deer in and around towns, and discover their attitudes to urban deer management.
- Understanding Biotic Threats
- Delivering Resilient Forests
[Archive] Grazing as a management tool in European forest ecosystems
Nine papers presented at a workshop funded as part of an EU concerted action programme, aimed at reviewing information on the impact of grazing animals on forest ecosystems, identifying management…
Forest damage by deer depends on cross‐scale interactions between climate, deer density and landscape structure
This journal paper investigates the factors that drive deer damage to woodlands using the National Forest Inventory sample square data. We found that the likelihood of damage to trees depends on cross-scale interactions between climate, deer density and landscape structure. The complex interactive effects uncovered are difficult to interpret. We therefore provide an interactive Deer Damage Tool for practitioners to visualize how afforestation is likely to influence the probability of deer damage in different forests and regions across Britain.
Spake, R., Bellamy, C., Gill, R., Watts, K., Wilson, T., Ditchburn, B., & Eigenbrod, F. (2020) Forest damage by deer depends on cross‐scale interactions between climate, deer density and landscape structure. Journal of Applied Ecology. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13622.
Broome, A., R.J. Fuller, P.E. Bellamy, M.P. Eichhorn, R. M. A. Gill, R. Harmer, G. Kerr & G. M. Siriwardena. (2017) Implications of lowland broadleaved woodland management for the conservaton of target bird species. Forestry Commission Research Note. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.
Nichols, C.P. and Gill, R.M.A. (2016) Bark stripping behaviour by the grey squirrel,Sciurus carolinensis. Chapter 19 in: Shuttleworth, C. and Gurnell, J. (Eds) The Grey Squirrel. (in press)
Nichols, C.P., Gill, R.M.A., Drewe, J.A. Goode, N. Gregory, N. (2016) A novel causal mechanism for grey squirrels bark stripping: The Calcium hypothesis. Forest Ecology and Management. 367 12-20.
N. Barsoum, R. Gill, L. Henderson, A. Peace, C. Quine, V. Saraev and G. Valatin. (2016). Biodiversity and rotation length: economic models and ecological evidence. Forestry Commission Research Note, Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.
Van der Wal, R., Miller, D., Irvine, J., Fiorini, S., Amar, A., Yearley, S., Gill, R., Dandy, N. (2014). The influence of information provision on peoples’ landscape preferences: a case study of deer-browsed woodlands. Landscape and Urban Planning, 124, 129-139
López-Alfaro, C., Estades, C.F., Aldridge, D. Gill, R.M.A (2012). Individual-based modeling as a decision tool for the conservation of the endangered huemul deer (hippocamelus bisulcus) in southern Chile. Ecological Modelling 244 104-116.
Dandy, N. Ballantyne, S., Moseley, D., Gill, R. Quine, C. Van der Wal, R. (2012) Exploring beliefs behind support for and opposition to wildlife management methods. European Journal of Wildlife Research,
Gill,R.M.A. and Trout, R. (2011) Potential impact of mammals on short rotation forest biomass crops. P191-198 in: McKay, H. (Ed) Short rotation forestry: a review of growth and environmental impacts. Forest Research Monograph No. 2. ISBN 978-0-85538-827-0
Dandy, N., Ballantyne, S., Moseley, D., Gill, R., Peace, A. and Quine, C.(2011). Preferences for wildlife management methods among the peri-urban public in Scotland. European Journal of Wildlife Research, Volume 57, Issue 6 (2011), Page 1213-1221. [DOI: 10.1007/s10344-011-0534-x]
Dolman, P., Fuller, R., Gill, R., Hooton, D. & Tabor, R. (2010). Escalating ecological impacts of deer in lowland woodland. British Wildlife April 2010 p242-254.
Gill, R.M.A. & Morgan, G. (2010). The effects of varying deer density on natural regeneration in woodlands in lowland Britain. Forestry 83: 53-63.
Harmer, R., Kiewitt, A., Gill, R. & Morgan, G. (2010). Does the development of bramble (Rubus fruticosus L. agg) facilitate the growth and establishment of tree seedlings in woodlands by reducing deer browsing damage? Forestry. 83: 93-102
Mayle, B., Irvine, R.J., Armstrong, H., Dandy, N., Fiorini, S., Gill, R., MacMillan, D., O'Brien, E., Phillip, S., Ross, L., Smart, J., van der Wal, R., White, P., White, R. & Yearley, S. (2009). Collaborative frameworks in land management: A case study on integrated deer management. RELU Newsletter, No.5 (PDF-1067K).
Phillip S., Dandy, N. Gill, R.M.A. & MacMillan, D.C. (2009). Is legislation a barrier to the sustainable management of game species? A case study of wild deer in Britain. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management. 52(8) 993-1012.
Fuller, R.J. & Gill, R.M.A. (2009). The spread of non-native Muntjac and Fallow Deer: a problem for lowland woodland birds? Proceedings of the British Ornithological Union – the impacts of non-native species. BOU ProcNet, http:// www.bou.org.uk/bouproc-net/non-natives/fuller-gill20100531.
Gill, R.M.A., Saucedo Galvez, C., Aldridge, D. & Morgan, G. (2008). Ranging behaviour of huemul in relation to habitats and landscape. Journal of Zoology 274 254-260. (online, Oct 2007).
Jimenez, J., Guineo, G., Corti P., Smith, J.A., Flueck, W., Vila, A., Gizejewski, Z., Gill, R., McShea, W. & Geist, V. (2008). Hippocamelus bisulcus. IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of threatened species.
Irvine, R.J., Broadmeadow, M., Gill., R.M.A. & Albon, S.D. (2007). Deer & Global warming: How will climate change influence deer populations, Deer, Autumn 2007, 34-37.
Gill, R.M.A. & Fuller, R.J. (2007). The effects of deer browsing on woodland structure and songbirds in lowland Britain Ibis 149 119-127.
Hemami, M.R., Watkinson, A., Gill, R.M.A. & Dolman, P. (2007). Estimating abundance of introduced Chinese muntjac Muntiacus reevesi and native roe deer Capreolus capreolus using portable thermal imaging. Mammal Review 37 246-254.
Gill, R.M.A. (2006). The influence of large herbivores on tree recruitment and forest dynamics. Chapter 6 In: Danell K., Bergstrom, R. and Rooke T. (eds) The Impact of Large Mammalian Herbivores on Biodiversity, Ecosystem Structure and Function. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Gill, R.M.A. (2004). Lowland deer – their impacts and need for management. C. Quine (Ed) Mammals in woodlands. Mammal Society and Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.
Saucedo C. and Gill R.M.A. (2004). Huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus) ecology research :Conservation planning in Chilean patagonia IUCN Deer Specialist Group News No 19 p13-16.
Gill R.M.A. (2003). The economic implications of deer damage in woodlands and forests. In: Goldberg E. (Ed) The future for deer: The Deer Initiative Conference, 28-29 March 2003. English Nature Research Reports 548, p26-31 Peterborough.
Armstrong, H. Gill, R., Mayle, B. and Trout, R. (2003). Protecting trees from deer: an overview of current knowledge and future work (PDF-1227K). Forest Research Annual Report 2001-2, The Forestry Commission, Edinburgh, p28-39.
Sparks, T. and Gill, R. (2002). Climate change and the seasonality of woodland flora and fauna. in: Broadmeadow, M. (Ed) Climate change: impacts on UK forests. Forestry Commission Bulletin 125. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh,
Gill, R.M.A., Webber, J. andPeace, A. (2001). The economic implications of deer damage: a review of current evidence. The Deer Commission for Scotland, Annual Report 1999-2000 p48-49.
Fuller, R.J. and Gill R.M.A. (2001). Ecological impacts of increasing numbers of deer in British woodland. Fuller R.J. and Gill, R.M.A. (Eds) Special Issue, Forestry 74(3) 193-199.
Gill, R.M.A. and Beardall, V. (2001). The impact of deer on woodlands: the effects of browsing and seed dispersal on vegetation structure and composition Fuller R.J. and Gill, R.M.A. (Eds) Special Issue, Forestry 74(3) 209-218.
Gill, R.M.A. (2001). Book Review: The Patagonian huemul: A mysterious deer on the brink of extinction. Diaz, N. and Smith-Flueck, J. (2000) Literature of Latin America, No 3 Buenos Aires, 150pp.
Gill R.M.A. (2001). The deer explosion. Tree News Autumn/Winter 2001.
Harmer, R.and Gill, R. (2000). Natural regeneration in broadleaved woodlands: deer browsing and the establishment of advanced regeneration. Forestry Commission Information Note. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.
Gill, R. (2000). The impact of deer on woodland biodiversity. Forestry Commission Information Note. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.
Mayle, B. Peace, A. and Gill, R. (1999). How Many Deer? A guide to estimating deer population size. Forestry Commission Field Book. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh. 96p
Gill R.M.A. (1999). Deer management to protect forest vegetation - a British perspective. Wiggins, G. (Ed) Proceedings of the Cedar Symposium, Haida Gwaii, Queen Charlotte Islands, 28-30 May 1996. Ministry of Forests, British Columbia, Canada; p59-68.
Hester, A. Kirby, K., Mitchell, F. Gill R., Latham, J. and H. Armstrong (1998). Ungulates and forest management in the British Isles. Chapter 4 In: Humphrey, J., Gill, R.M.A. and Claridge, J. (Eds). Grazing as a management tool in European forested ecosystems. Forestry Commission Technical Paper 25.
Cederlund, G., Bergqvist, J., Kjellander, P., Gill, R., Gaillard, J.M., Boisaubert, B., Ballon, P. and Duncan, P. (1998). Managing roe deer and their impact on the environment: maximising the net benefits to society. Chapter 14 In: The European roe deer: the biology of success. Andersen, R., Duncan, P. & Linnell, J. D. C. (eds) Scandinavian University Press, 1998 p337-372.
Mayle, B. Gill, R. and Pepper, H. (1998). Management of deer in the lowlands. Forest research annual report and accounts 1997-98. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh. p51-55.
Gill, R.M.A. (1998) .The use of thermal imaging for deer population research and management. In: Goldspink, C.R., King, S. and Putman, R.J. (Eds) Population ecology, management and welfare of deer. Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester. viii+119p
Gill R.M.A., Thomas, M.L. and Stocker, D. (1997). The use of portable thermal imaging for estimating deer population density in forest habitats. Journal of Applied Ecology, 34 1273-1286.
Gill R.M.A., Johnson A.L., Francis A., Hiscocks K., Peace A.J. (1996). Changes in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) population density in response to forest habitat succession. Forest Ecology and Management 88 31-41.
Gill, R.M.A. (1996). Huemul Monitoring and Conservation. Field Research News, No. 8 p2, Raleigh International, London.
Gill, R.M.A. (1996). Book Review: "Behavioural Ecology of Siberian and European roe deer" by A. Danilkin in association with A.J.M. Hewison, Chapman and Hall (1996). Journal of Animal Ecology 1996 65 851-852.
Gill R.M.A., Gurnell J., Trout, R.C. (1995). Do woodland mammals threaten the development of new woods? In: Ferris-Kaan, R. (Ed) The Ecology of Woodland Creation, p200-224. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.
de Jong C.B., Gill, R,M.A., van Wieren, S.E., Burlton, F.W.E. (1995). Diet selection by roe deer Capreolus capreolus in Kielder Forest in relation to plant cover. Forest Ecology and Management 79 91-97.
Bodmer R.E., Fang T.G., Moya L.I., Gill, R.M.A. (1994). Managing Wildlife to conserve Amazonian forests: population biology and economic considerations of game hunting. Biological Conservation 67 29-35.
Gill R.M.A. (1992). A review of damage by mammals in north temperate forests: 1. deer. Forestry 65 145-169.
Gill R.M.A. (1992). A review of damage by mammals in north temperate forests: 2. small mammals. Forestry 65 281-308.
Gill R.M.A. (1992). A review of damage by mammals in north temperate forests: 3. impact on trees and forests. Forestry 65 363-388.
Gill, R.M.A. (1992). Leader browsing of sitka spruce. Report on forest Research 1991. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh. 108p.
Gill R.M.A. (1991). Grazing animals: their impact and potential value in ride management. In: Ferris-Kaan, R. (Ed) Edge Management in Woodlands. Proceedings of a Symposium held at Alice Holt, Surrey, 17 October 1989. Forestry Commission Occasional Paper 28, 49-56.
Ratcliffe P.R. and Gill R.M.A. (1991). The influence of mammals on the regeneration of forest communities. In: Packham, J.R. (Ed) Future Forests, Lessons from Experience. Proceedings of a symposium held at Wolverhampton Polytechnic, 16 March 1991. Wolverhampton Polytechnic and the Arboricultural Association, p54-70.
Gill R.M.A. (1990). Monitoring the Status of European and North American Cervids. GEMS Information Series 8. Global Environment Monitoring System, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, Kenya 277p.
Rowe J.J. and Gill R.M.A. (1985). The susceptibility of tree species to damage by grey squirrels in England and Wales. Quarterly Journal of Forestry 79, 183-190.