Ian Willoughby

BSc, MBA, PhD, FICFor


Related research

Research topic

Regeneration and sustainable silviculture

Adapting forest regeneration to increase resilience to climate change and biotic threats, whilst maintaining productivity.

Status: Current

Themes

  • Forest management
Research topic

Chemicals Regulation Directorate (CRD) officially recognised efficacy testing organisation

Service to provide Quality Assured field trials of new and existing pesticides under strictly controlled environmental conditions

Status: Current

Themes

  • Forest management
Research topic

Management of upland native woodlands

Best methods for restoring & expanding major native woodland typesin upland Britain

Status: Current

Themes

  • Forest management
Research topic

Control of Gaultheria shallon

Gaultheria shallon can be effectively controlled by the herbicides picloram, triclopyr or glyphosate if they are applied at the correct time of year.

Status: Completed

Themes

  • Forest management
Research topic

European network for vegetation management

Aims to reduce dependence on herbicides in Europe’s forests by sharing best practice and encouraging collaboration across the EU

Status: Completed

Themes

  • Forest management
Research topic

The use of Ecoplugs for woody weed control

Ecoplugs containing glyphosate can be an effective means of killing standing trees, and preventing regrowth from cut rhododendron stumps.

Status: Completed

Themes

  • Forest management
Research topic

Integrated forest vegetation management

Practical solutions for woodland establishment and regeneration in lowland situations

Status: Current

Themes

  • Forest management
Research topic

Integrated forest vegetation management - Vegetation management

Weed control problems in new planting, restocking and natural regeneration situations

Status: Current

Themes

  • Forest management
Research topic

Delivering Resilient Forests

Resilient forests are important if our trees are to cope better with changing environmental conditions and threats from pests and diseases. This page provides information on the publications produced as part of Forest Research's 'Delivering Resilient Forests' programme of research.

Status: Current

Themes

  • Climate change
  • Forest management
  • Pests and diseases
  • Ecosystem services
  • Socio economic research
  • Urban greening
  • Soil science
  • Tree breeding
Research topic

Publications about delivering resilient forests

This page lists the main publications about planning and management to deliver forest ecosystem resilience produced through the 'Delivering Resilient Forests' research programme.

Status: Current

Themes

  • Climate change
  • Forest management
  • Pests and diseases
  • Ecosystem services
  • Socio economic research
  • Urban greening
  • Soil science
  • Tree breeding

Related publications

Peer reviewed papers

Controlling rhododendron through the use of herbicides

To control Rhododendron spread, its eradication, usually by cutting and removal, is an accepted management practice. The regrowth of shoots on rhododendron stumps is however a common. Two papers explore different aspects of this problem.

Themes

  • Forest management
Peer reviewed papers

Direct seeding of birch, rowan and alder can be a viable technique for the restoration of upland native woodland in the UK

Direct seeding of birch, rowan and alder can be a viable technique for the restoration of upland native woodland in the UK

Themes

  • Climate change
  • Forest management

Main recent publications

Peer reviewed papers

Willoughby, I.H. and Peace, S. (2019). Delivering Resilient Forests: A summary of research. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 113 (3), 178 – 183.

Willoughby, I.H., Jinks R.L. and Forster, J. (2019). Direct seeding of birch, rowan and alder can be a viable technique for the restoration of upland native woodland in the UK. Forestry 92 (3), 324-338. https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/cpz018

Willoughby, I.H., Tubby, K.V., Saunders, C. and Peace, S. (2019). Exploring the use of Ecoplugs for woody weed control. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 113 (2), 96 – 101.

Willoughby, I. H., Forster, J. and Stokes, V. J. (2018). Gaultheria shallon can be controlled by the herbicides picloram, triclopyr or glyphosate if they are applied at the correct time of year. New Forests 49 (6), 757-774.

Willoughby, I.H., Harmer, R. and Forster, J. (2018). Ten conifer species with the potential for wider use in British forestry show some tolerance to six commonly used pesticides. Quarterly Journal of Forestry 112 (2), 84-91.

Willoughby, I. H. and Peace S. (2018). Reversing the spread: how can we prevent Gaultheria becoming the next Rhododoendron? Quarterly Journal of Forestry 112 (3), 199-202. Reversing the spread 

Tubby, K.V., Willoughby, I.H. and Forster, J. (2017). The efficacy of chemical thinning treatments on Pinus sylvestris and Larix kaempferi and subsequent incidence and potential impact of Heterobasidion annosum infection in standing trees. Forestry 90 (5), 728 – 736.

Willoughby, I.H., Stokes, V.J. and Connolly, T. (2017). Using Ecoplugs containing glyphosate can be an effective method of killing standing trees. Forestry 90 (5), 719-727.

Willoughby, I. H., Stokes, V. J. and Edwards, C. (2017). Ecoplugs containing glyphosate can be effective in preventing regrowth from Rhododendron ponticum stumps. Scottish Forestry 71 (3), 33-39.

Willoughby, I.H. and Stokes, V.J. (2015). Mixture B New Formulation adjuvant increases the rainfastness and hence effectiveness of glyphosate for rhododendron control. Forestry, 88 (2), 172-179.

Willoughby, I.H., Seier, M.K., Stokes, V.J., Thomas, S.E., Varia, S. (2015). Synthetic herbicides were more effective than a bioherbicide based on Chondrostereum purpureum in reducing resprouting of Rhododendron ponticum, a host of Phytophthora ramorum in the UK. Forestry 88 (3), 336-344.

Stokes, V.J. and Willoughby, I.H. (2014). Early weed control can increase long-term growth, yield and carbon sequestration of Sitka spruce stands in Britain . Forestry 87, 425-435.

Willoughby, I.H., Ralph Harmer, R., Morgan, G.W., Peace, A. (2013). Triclopyr applied in the winter dormant season can give effective control of bramble (Rubus fruticosus L. agg.) without damaging young tree seedlings or other non-target vegetation  Forestry(86): 59-69. (PDF-1520K)

Willoughby, I.H., Jinks, R.L., Morgan, G.W., Pepper, H., Budd, J. and Mayle, B. (2011). The use of repellents to reduce predation of tree seed by wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus L.) and grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin). European Journal of Forest Research, 130, 601-611.

Stokes, V. and Willoughby, I. (2011). The impact of bracken control on establishment of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra subsp. laricio (Maire)) and on pine weevil (Hylobius abietis (L.)) damage. Aspects of Applied Biology 108, 217-224.

Stokes, V. and Willoughby, I. (2011). A comparison of Cover crops, direct seeding and herbicides in the establishment of ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior (L.)) in lowland Britain. Quarterly Journal of Forestry 105 (1), 19-28. FR_Stokes_V_and_Willoughby_I_QJF_Cover_crop_direct_seeding_herbicides_2011.pdf(1017 kB)

McCarthy, N., Bentsen, N.S., Willoughby, I. and Balandier, P. (2011). The state of forest vegetation management in Europe in the 21st century. European Journal of Forest Research 130, 7-16.

Willoughby, I. and Jinks, R.L. (2009). The effect of duration of vegetation management on broadleaved woodland creation by direct seeding. Forestry 82 (3), 343-359.

Willoughby, I., Stokes, V. and Kerr, G. (2009). Side shelter on lowland sites can benefit early growth of ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.). Forestry 82 (2), 199-210.

Willoughby, I. and Jinks, R.L. (2009). The effect of duration of vegetation management on broadleaved woodland creation by direct seeding. Forestry 82 (3), 343-359.

Willoughby, I., Stokes, V., Poole, J., White, J.E.J. and Hodge, S.J. (2007). The potential of 44 native and non native species for woodland creation on a range of contrasting sites in lowland Britain (PDF-1311K). Forestry, 80 (5), 531-553.

Willoughby, I., Dixon, F.L., Clay, D.V. and Jinks, R.L. (2007). Tolerance of broadleaved tree and shrub seedlings to preemergence herbicides (PDF-924K). New Forests 34, 1-12.

Harmer, R. and Willoughby, I. (2007). Controlling bramble within an oak woodland using herbicides. Aspects of Applied Biology 82, 165-173.

Stokes, V.J. and Willoughby, I. (2007). Tolerance of trees to foliar acting herbicides. Aspects of Applied Biology 82, 91-101.

Willoughby, I., Clay, D.V. and Dixon, F.L. (2006). Willoughby, I. Clay, D. V., Dixon, F. L. and Morgan, G. W. (2006). The effect from different weed species on the growth of Betula pendula seedlings. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36 (8), 1891-1899. vegetation_mgt_2006_betula_pendula.pdf

Willoughby, I., Dixon, F.L. and Clay, D.V. (2006). Dormant season vegetation management in broadleaved transplants and direct sown ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) seedlings. Forest Ecology and Management 222, 418-426.

Willoughby, I., Jinks, R.L. and Stokes, V. (2006). The tolerance of newly emerged broadleaved tree seedlings to the herbicides clopyralid, cycloxydim and metazachlor (PDF-824K). Forestry 79 (4): 599-608.

Dixon, F.L., Clay, D.V., and Willoughby, I. (2006).The efficacy of pre-emergence herbicides on problem weeds in woodland regeneration (PDF-22K). Crop Protection 25 (3), 259-268.

Clay, D.V., Dixon, F.L. and Willoughby, I. (2006). Weed control in mist-propagated Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr.) cuttings. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 100 (3) 193-200. vegetation_mgt_2006_weed_control.pdf (PDF-905K)

Dixon, F.L., Clay, D.V. and Willoughby, I. (2006).Evaluation of the selectivity of herbicides as potential replacements for atrazine in forestry (PDF-5587K). Scottish Forestry 60 (3), 6-14.

Dixon, F.L., Clay, D.V., and Willoughby, I. (2006).The potential of safeners and protectants to increase tolerance of tree seeds to pre-emergence herbicides (PDF-505K). Quarterly Journal of Forestry 100 (2) 107-114.

Dixon, F.L., Clay, D.V., and Willoughby, I. (2006).The efficacy of graminicides on grass weed species of forestry (PDF-20K). Crop Protection, 2006 Vol 25 (9), pages 1039-1050.

Jinks, R.L., Willoughby, I. and Baker, C. (2006). Direct seeding of ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.): the effects of sowing date, site conditions, and pre-emergent herbicides on seedling emergence and survival. Forest Ecology and Management 237, 373-386.

Little, K., Willoughby, I., Wagner, R.G., Adams, P., Frochot, H., Gava, J., Gous, S., Lautenschlager, R.A., Örlander, G., Sankaran, K.V. and Wei, R.P. (2006). Towards reduced herbicide use in forest vegetation management. Southern African Forestry Journal 207, 63-79. Towards reduced herbice use in forest vegetation management (PDF-279K)

Clay, D.V., Dixon, F.L. and Willoughby, I. (2005).Natural products as herbicides for tree establishment (PDF-92K). Forestry 78 (1), 1-9.
Summary and practical implications

Dixon, F.L., Clay, D.V. and Willoughby, I. (2005). An investigation into the relative efficacy of herbicides for the control of Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin. in woodland establishment. Forestry 78 (3), 229-238.  vegetation_mgt_2005_deschampsia.pdf (PDF-106K)

Dixon, F.L., Clay, D.V. and Willoughby, I. (2005). Tolerance of young trees to applications of clopyralid. Forestry 78 (4).
Summary and practical implications

Willoughby, I., Jinks, R.L., Kerr, G. and Gosling, P.G. (2004). Factors affecting the success of direct seeding for new woodland creation. Forestry 77 (5), 467-482.
Summary and practical implications

Thomson, A.J. and Willoughby, I. (2004).A web based expert system for advising on herbicide use in Great Britain (PDF-208K). Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 42 43-49.
Summary and practical implications

Willoughby, I., Clay, D.V. and Dixon, F.L. (2003).The effect of pre-emergent herbicides on germination and early growth of broadleaved species used for direct seeding (PDF-81K)Forestry 76 (1), 83-94.

Brown, A., Willoughby, I., Clay, D.V., Moore, R and Dixon, F.L. (2003).The use of dye markers as a method of reducing herbicide use and potential environmental impacts (PDF-354K)Forestry 76 (4) 371-384.

Dixon, F.L., Clay, D.V., and Willoughby, I. (2002).Susceptibility of woodland plants to herbicide drift (PDF-356K). Quarterly Journal of Forestry 96 (1), 32-36.

Dixon, F.L., Clay, D.V. and Willoughby, I. (2000).vegetation_mgt_2000_creeping_thistle.pdf (PDF-1444K). Aspects of Applied Biology 58. Vegetation management in changing landscapes. Association of Applied Biologists, Horticulture Research International, Wellesbourne, Warwick.

Harmer, R., Willoughby, I. and Robertson, M. (2000).vegetation_mgt_2000_fagus_sylvatica.pdf (PDF-1510K). Aspects of Applied Biology 58. Vegetation management in changing landscapes. Association of Applied Biologists, Horticulture Research International, Wellesbourne, Warwick.

Willoughby, I. (1999). The control of coppice regrowth in roadside woodlands (PDF-167K). Forestry 72 (4), 305-312.

Willoughby, I (1999). Vegetation management in farm forestry - a comparison of alternative methods of inter-row management (PDF-183K). Forestry 72 (2), 109-121.

Willoughby, I. (1999). Future alternatives to the use of herbicides in British forestry (PDF-83K). Canadian Journal of Forest Research 29 (7), 866-874.

Willoughby, I. (1997). Glyphosate rain fastness(622 kB) Quarterly Journal of Forestry 91 (3), 203-210.

Willoughby, I. (1996).Dormant season application of broad spectrum herbicides in forestry (PDF-1820K).Aspects of Applied Biology 44, Vegetation management in forestry, amenity and conservation areas : Managing for multiple objectives. Association of Applied Biologists, Horticulture Research International, Wellesbourne, Warwick, 55-62.

Books and book chapters

Löf, M., Ersson, B.T., Hjältén, J., Nordfjell T., Oliet, J.A. and Willoughby, I. (2015). Chapter 5: Site Preparation Techniques for Forest Restoration. In Stanturf, J.A. (Ed.) (2015). Restoration of Boreal and Temperate Forests, Second Edition. CRC Press. www.crcpress.com ISBN: 978-1-4822-1196-2, eBook ISBN: 978-1-4822-1197-9

Willoughby, I., Wilcken, C., Ivey, P., O’Grady, K., and Katto, F. (2009). Forest Stewardship Council guide to integrated pest, disease and weed management in FSC certified forests and plantations (PDF-1290K). FSC Technical Series No. 2009-001.

Willoughby, I., Balandier, P., Bentsen, N.S., McCarthy, N. and Claridge, J. (Eds.) (2009). Forest vegetation management in Europe: current practice and future requirements (PDF-3839K). COST Office, Brussels. pp156.

Carter, A.D. and Willoughby, I. (2005). Farm woodland management, 40pp. In, Soffe, R.J. (ed.) (2005) The Countryside Notebook. Blackwell Science, Oxford.

Willoughby, I., Clay, D.V. and Moore, R. (2002). The identification of dye markers to improve targeting and help achieve reductions in herbicide use. In, Frochet, H., Collet, C., Balandier, P. (comp.) (2002) Fourth international conference on forest vegetation management : popular summaries. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique 54 280 Champenoux, France, 230-232.

Thomson, A.J. and Willoughby, I. (2002). A web-based expert system for advising on herbicide use in Great Britain. In, Frochet, H., Collet, C., Balandier, P. (comp.) (2002) Fourth international conference on forest vegetation management : popular summaries. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique 54 280 Champenoux, France, 237-239.

Clay, D.V., Dixon, F.L. and Willoughby, I. (2002). Natural product herbicides for tree establishment. In, Frochet, H., Collet, C., Balandier, P. (comp.) (2002) Fourth international conference on forest vegetation management : popular summaries. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique 54 280 Champenoux, France, 24-26.

FC publications

Willoughby, I., Moore, R. and Nisbet, T. (2017). Interim guidance on the integrated management of Hylobius abietis in UK forestry. Forest Research Research Note, 29pp.

Willoughby, I. (2013). Using chemicals in the forest. Operational Guidance Booklet 15. Forestry Commission internal report. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh. 73 pp.

Willoughby, I. (2007). Using dye markers to reduce pesticide use (PDF-610K). Forestry Commission Technical Note 16. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.

Willoughby, I., Harrison, A., Jinks, R.L., Gosling, P.G., Harmer, R. and Kerr, G. (2007). The potential for direct seeding of birch on restock sites (PDF-386K). Forestry Commission Information Note 84. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.

Willoughby, I., Jinks, R.L., Gosling, P.G., and Kerr, G. (2004).Creating new broadleaved woodlands by direct seeding (PDF-647K). Forestry Commission Practice Guide, 50pp.

Willoughby, I., Evans, H., Gibbs, J., Pepper, H., Gregory, S., Dewar, J., Pratt, J., McKay, H. (2004). Reducing pesticide use in forestry. Forestry Commission Practice Guide, Forestry Commission, Edinburgh, 140pp.

Willoughby, I and Clay, D. (1999).Herbicide update (PDF-1695K). Forestry Commission Technical Paper 28. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh, 49 pp.

Willoughby, I and Palmer, C. (1997).Weed control in Christmas tree plantations (PDF-2287K). Forestry Commission Field Book 15. Stationary Office, London, 41pp.

Willoughby, I. (1996).Noxious weeds (PDF-2718K). Forestry Commission Research Information Note 274. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh, 8pp.

Willoughby, I. (1996).Herbicide update (PDF-1859K). Forestry Commission Research Information Note 279. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh, 12pp.

Willoughby, I. and Clay, D. (1996). Herbicides for farm woodlands and short rotation coppice. Forestry Commission Field Book 14. HMSO, London, 60pp.Main sections (PDF-3843K),Appendices (PDF-3175K). Please note that these PDF files form an integral whole , and should always be downloaded and read in conjunction with each other.

Willoughby, I., Kerr, G., Jinks, R. and Gosling, P. (1996).Establishing new woodlands by direct sowing (PDF-1420K). Forestry Commission Research Information Note 285. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh, 8pp.

Willoughby, I. (1996).Weed control when establishing new woodlands by direct sowing (PDF-1133K). Forestry Commission Research Information Note 286. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh, 8pp.

Willoughby, I. and Moffat, A. (1996).Cultivation of lowland sites for new woodland establishment (PDF-2346K). Forestry Commission Research Information Note 288. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh, 8pp.

Willoughby, I (1995). Farm woodlands research. Forestry Commission Research Division Leaflet. Forestry Commission Research Division, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey, 2pp.

Willoughby, I. and Dewar, J. (1995). The use of herbicides in the forest. Forestry Commission Field Book 8. HMSO, London, 318pp.

McCavish , W.J. and Insley, I. (1992) (revised by Willoughby, I. (1995)). Herbicides for sward control among amenity trees(364 kB) Arboriculture Research Note 27/95. Arboriculture Advisory and Information Service, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey, 5pp.

Trade journal articles

Willoughby, I. (2004). Using colour to protect woodlands (PDF-529K).The Colourist, Issue 1, Spring, p6.

Willoughby, I. (2004). Reducing pesticide use in forestry (PDF-414K). Forestry and British Timber, 33 (2).

Willoughby, I. (2004). Expert help on herbicide selection (PDF-375K). Forestry and British Timber, 33 (2).

Willoughby, I., and Clay, D.V. (2002). Natural product herbicides in forestry: what are the prospects? (PDF-756K). Forestry and British Timber 31 (2), 22-25.

Willoughby, I. (2001).Seeing Red (or Blue) - benefits of dye markers in spraying applications (PDF-1000K). Forestry and British Timber 30 (2), 22-24.

Willoughby, I. and Claridge, J. (2000).Trees and weeds, an update on herbicides (PDF-628K). Forestry and British Timber 29 (2), 30-31.

Willoughby, I. (1999). Herbicides in forestry - how are they approved and used? (PDF-1121K) Forestry and British Timber, 28 (2), 27-30.

Willoughby, I. (1997).Using additives with forestry herbicides (PDF-898K). Forestry and British Timber 26 (2), 41-43

Willoughby, I. (1997).Weeding young trees - avoiding trouble (PDF-1091K). Farming and Conservation 3 (3), 27-30.

Willoughby, I. (1995). Herbicides in forests and farm woodlands(454 kB)Forestry and British Timber 24 (2), 23 - 25.

Willoughby, I. (1995). Revised long term off - label arrangements for pesticides(303 kB)Forestry and British Timber 25 (3), 21 - 22.