This Report describes the biological and environmental factors that influence attack frequency and severity from Ips bark beetles and assesses strategies for their management, with emphasis on the major threat posed by I. typographus.
This Research Report reviews the provision of four ecosystem services by 18 small and medium stature tree species using the i-Tree Eco model and compares the performance of these trees in different age groups.
This Research Report reviews the provision of four ecosystem services by 12 large stature tree species using the i-Tree Eco model and compares the performance of trees in different age classifications and climate regions.
This Research Report provides a review of published results from provenance tests of relevance to English native trees to identify factors which may influence the risk, suitability and desirability of the use of local versus non-local seed under climate change.
This Report collates and synthesises research into the production and use of Scots pine timber in Great Britain, drawing where necessary and for comparative purposes on sources from the European continent where Scots pine is better characterised and used in a wider range of applications.
Modern forest management practice increasingly adopts an ecosystem services approach to account for the multiple benefits and objectives of forestry. It is also increasingly linked to climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. In view of the priority given to these policy agendas, it is important that new models take an integrated approach to accounting for […]
Woodlands and trees have a wide-ranging role in the economy but this is often under-valued in conventional economic indicators. For example, woodlands deliver social and environmental benefits – such as outdoor access, biodiversity and carbon sequestration – which are largely unpriced in economic transactions but which have important impacts on the economy and on society’s […]
This Research Report looks at a broad range of urban forest-based ecosystem services and disservices and, using a literature review, links their provision with four aspects of urban forests (physical scale, physical structure and context in terms of location and proximity to people and land use and ownership). A key objective of this report is […]
Timber is a versatile and high performance construction material that can be produced in most parts of the UK. This second edition of ‘Sustainable construction timber’ has been written to help building designers and contractors source and specify local timber products. The report explains why local sourcing of timber is important, reviews the range of […]
Shake (internal splitting of the wood in a growing tree) is believed to affect and devalue around one-fifth of British oak crops. There is currently no fully reliable method to identify the defect in standing trees, or to predict vulnerable sites and stands without local knowledge and historical data. Shake may appear on any site, […]
Evidence indicates that woodland creation is generally a cost-effective method of climate change mitigation, when compared with a range of alternatives. However, engaging landowners and land managers in woodland creation schemes can sometimes prove difficult, and this affects prospects for meeting national woodland planting targets and associated climate change mitigation objectives. Although reluctance to plant […]
Ecosystem services refer to the benefits or outputs that people derive from ecosystems. Following the publication of the UK National Ecosystem Assessment there has been a growing interest in assessing the flows of such services and valuing the contribution they make to human well-being. This Research Report draws upon recent evidence (years 2001 to 2012) […]
A substantial body of literature, including government policies, acknowledges the important role of greenspace in sustainable development and the creation of attractive and economically vibrant communities. Greenspace refers to the natural environmental components (green and blue spaces) that lie within and between a region’s cities, towns and villages. This Research Report provides a critical review […]
Forests are popular places for recreation, but some activities can have negative impacts on wildlife. Land managers have to balance delivery of the social and economic benefits derived from outdoor recreation with nature conservation objectives. This literature review provides an overview of potential disturbance issues and a guide to the evidence on impacts from walking, […]
Comparing the cost-effectiveness of different climate change mitigation measures is essential in minimising the cost of meeting national greenhouse gas reduction targets. The costs of different measures and their potential to reduce emissions or sequester greenhouse gases can be depicted using a Marginal Abatement Cost Curve. Previous studies have shown that UK forestry measures are […]
Forests and woodlands represent a substantial stock of carbon that is contained in soil, trees and other vegetation. They are a key component of the global carbon cycle and their effective management, at both global and regional scales, is an important mechanism for reducing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Understanding what determines the size of […]
Our urban forests, the trees and woodlands in and around our towns and cities, provide numerous environmental, economic and social benefits. As the most important single component of green infrastructure these trees have a vital role to play in promoting sustainable communities. In April 2011, for the first time in Britain, the relevant professional bodies […]
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