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Plants are involved in the uptake, transport and assimilation (or, in some cases, decomposition) of many gaseous or particulate pollutants. Therefore trees and vegetation can play an important role in influencing urban air quality, and in mediating some of the negative effects of pollutants. Vegetation also removes from the atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) – the main greenhouse gas associated with climate change.
A wide range of chemical pollutants and particulates (dust) can cause serious problems in industrial, urban and peri-urban environments. As well as affecting human health, many common pollutants may also have a detrimental effect on our urban ecosystems. There has been increasing recognition over the past 20 years that urban greenspace can act as an important sink (or reservoir) for many of these pollutants.
There are a number of common air pollutants in the atmosphere of urban environments, all of which may be influenced by the presence of trees and other greenspace.
In terms of direct impacts on human health, the most important pollutants are particulate matter, sulphur dioxide and ozone.
Some tree species can also have a negative effect and can form pollutants in the atmosphere, for example willow and poplar. Trees may emit gases known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). When these combine with the man-made oxides of nitrogen (NOx), they can contribute to the production of other pollutants, especially ozone..
In UK, the Environment Act 1995, the Pollution Prevention and Control Act 1999 and the European emission standards control pollution emissions from transport and industry.
In July 2007, the UK Government and the devolved administrations published the latest Air Quality Strategy for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, which defines air quality standards and objectives that need to be achieved.
The use of vegetation to mitigate particulate pollution has been recognised for a number of years. Forest Research used an integrated modelling approach that utilised air dispersion (ADMS-Urban) and particulate interception (UFORE) to predict the PM10 concentrations both before and after greenspace establishment, using a 10 x 10 km area of East London Green Grid (ELGG).
The corresponding health benefits, in terms of premature mortality and respiratory hospital admissions, as a result of the reduced exposure of the local population were then modelled.
It was found that PM10 capture from the scenario comprising 75% grassland, 20% sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and 5% Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) was estimated to be 90.41 t yr-1, equating to 0.009 t ha-1 yr-1 over the whole study area. The human health modelling estimated that 2 deaths and 2 hospital admissions would be averted per year.
Forest Research provides research services to the Forestry Commission and external clients.
Forest Research has extensive experience of conducting site-specific air pollution monitoring and surveys. Scientists provide advice and recommendations on species choice and planting regimes to help improve air quality in urban and industrial areas.
Forest Research has a long track record in conducting research on the impacts of vegetation and trees on urban air quality, and has extensive modelling capabilities.
An extensive library of information on the different types of air pollution common in UK, as well as up-to-date information on air quality and forecasts, can be found at the UK Air Quality Archive. This website gives access to both national and regional air quality data.
Department of the Environment (1996). Urban Woodland and the Benefits for Local Air Quality. Research for Amenity Trees No. 5. London: Department for Communities and Local Government.
Tiwary, A., Sinnett, D., Peachey, C., Chalabi, Z., Vardoulakis, S., Fletcher, T., Leonardi, G., Grundy, C., Azapagic, A., Hutchings, T.R. (2009). An integrated tool to assess the role of new planting in PM10 capture and the human health benefits: A case study in London. Environmental Pollution 157, 2645-2653.
Peachey, C.J., Sinnett, D., Wilkinson, M., Morgan, G.W., Freer-Smith, P.H. and Hutchings, T.R. (2009). Deposition and solubility of airborne metals to four plant species grown at varying distances from two heavily trafficked roads in London. Environmental Pollution 1–9.
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