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Approximate lifecycle carbon emissions of a number of different fuels for heating, transport and power
These represent figures for the carbon or carbon dioxide emitted by full combustion of each fuel, per unit of energy. Note that life cycle CO2 emissions depend strongly upon details of supply chains, production techniques, forestry or agricultural practice, transport distances, etc.
|Fuel||Net CV||Carbon content||Approx. life cycle CO2 emissions (see note 1)||Annual total CO2 emissions to heat a typical house (20 MWh p.a.)|
|MJ/kg||%||kg/GJ||kg/MWh||kg||kg saved c.f. oil||kg saved c.f. gas|
|Electricity (UK grid – 2019)||–||–||71||256||5,120||1,160||-580|
|Electricity (large scale woodchip combustion)||–||–||16||58||1,160||5,120||3,380|
|Electricity (large scale woodchip gasification)||–||–||7||25||500||5,780||4,040|
|Woodchips (25% MC) fuel only||14||37.5||2||7||140||6,140||4,400|
|Woodchips (25% MC) inc. boiler||14||37.5||5||18||360||5,920||4,180|
|Wood pellets (10% MC starting from dry wood waste) See note 3||17||45||4||15||300||5,980||4,240|
|Wood pellets (10% MC drying from gree wood using gas)||17||45||22||80||1,600||4,680||2,940|
|Wood pellets (10% MC) inc. boiler See note 3||17||45||7||26||520||5,760||4,020|
|Wood pellets (10% MC drying from gree wood using gas)inc. boiler||17||45||25||91||1,820||4,460||2,720|
|Grasses/straw (15% MC)||14.5||38||1.5 to 4||5.4 to 15||108 to 300||5,920 to 6,172||4,240 to 4,432|
Note that life cycle CO2 emissions depend strongly upon details of supply chains, production techniques, forestry or agricultural practice, transport distances, etc.
|Fuel||Net CV||Density||Energy density||Carbon content||CO2 emission on combustion||Approx. life cycle GHG CO2 eq. emissions||Land use implications|
|MJ/kg||kg/m3||MJ/litre||%||g/litre||kg/gal||g/MJ||g/mile at 4.5 MJ/mile See note 1||g/litre||kg/gal||g/MJ||g/mile at 4.5 MJ/mile See note 1||miles/ha at 4.5 MJ/mile See note 1||miles/ha at 4.5 MJ/mile See note 1|
|LPG (mainly propane)||46||510||24||82||1,533||7.0||65.0||292||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Bioenthanol (from sugar beet)||27||789||21||52||1,503||6.8||71.6||322||724||3.3||34||155||26,400||0.38|
|Bioethanol (from wheat)||27||789||21||52||1,503||6.8||71.6||322||511||2.3||24||109||13,800||0.72|
|Biodiesel (from rapeseed oil)||37||880||33||77||2,486||11.3||75.3||338||1,334||6.1||41||183||9,100||1.1|
|Biodiesel (from waste vegetable oil)||37||880||33||77||2,486||11.3||75.3||338||437||2.0||13||60||–||–|
This report calculates the greenhouse gas emission savings (taking account of changes in forest carbon) resulting from using a range of forestry products (roundwood, wood chips and wood pellets) from UK and overseas forests to generate electricity.
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