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Impacts of large herbivores on woodlands – Publications

Home Publications Impacts of large herbivores on woodlands Impacts of large herbivores on woodlands – Publications


Impacts of large herbivores on woodlands

Andrews, J., Miller, G.R. & Armstrong, H.M. (2000). The effects of mammalian herbivores on natural regeneration of upland, native woodland. Scottish Natural Heritage Information and Advice Note No. 115. Scottish Natural Heritage, Battleby, Perthshire.

Fuller, R.J. and Gill R.M.A. (2001). Ecological impacts of increasing numbers of deer in British woodland. Fuller R.J. and Gill, R.M.A. (Eds) Special Issue, Forestry 74 193-199.

Gill, R.M.A. (2000). The impact of deer on woodland biodiversity (PDF-127K). Forestry Commission Information Note, 36.

Gill, R.M.A. (2006). The influence of large herbivores on tree recruitment and forest dynamics. Chapter 6 In: Danell K., Bergstrom, R. and Rooke T. (eds) The Impact of Large Mammalian Herbivores on Biodiversity, Ecosystem Structure and Function. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Gill, R.M.A. (2004). Population increases, impacts and the need for management of deer in Britain. In: Managing woodlands and their mammals. C. Quine, R.Shore and R.Trout (Eds). Forestry Commission, Edinburgh. 55-60.

Gill R.M.A. (2003). The economic implications of deer damage in woodlands and forests. In: Goldberg E. (Ed) The future for deer: The Deer Initiative Conference, 28-29 March 2003. English Nature Research Reports 548, p26-31 Peterborough.

Gill R.M.A. (1992). A review of damage by mammals in north temperate forests: 1. deer. Forestry 65 145-169.

Gill R.M.A. (1992). A review of damage by mammals in north temperate forests: 3. impact on trees and forests. Forestry 65 363-388.

Gill, R.M.A. & Beardall, V. (2001). The impact of deer on woodlands: the effects of browsing and seed dispersal on vegetation structure and composition. Fuller R.J. & Gill, R.M.A. (Eds) Special Issue, Forestry 74 209-218.

Gill, R.M.A. & Fuller, R.J. (2007). The effects of deer browsing on woodland structure and songbirds in lowland Britain Ibis 149 119-127.

Gill, R.M.A. & Morgan, G. (2010). The effects of varying deer density on natural regeneration in woodlands in lowland Britain. Forestry 83: 53-63.

Gill, R.M.A., Webber, J. Peace, A. (2001). The economic implications of deer damage: a review of current evidence. The Deer Commission for Scotland, Annual Report 1999-2000 p48-49.

Gill R.M.A., Gurnell J. & Trout, R.C. (1995). Do woodland mammals threaten the development of new woods? In: Ferris-Kaan, R. (Ed) The Ecology of Woodland Creation, p200-224. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

Harmer, R. & Gill, R. (2000). Natural regeneration in broadleaved woodlands: deer browsing and the establishment of advanced regeneration (PDF-121K). Forestry Commission Information Note 35.

Harmer, R., Kiewitt, A., Gill, R. & Morgan, G. (2010). Does the development of bramble (Rubus fruticosus L. agg) facilitate the growth and establishment of tree seedlings in woodlands by reducing deer browsing damage? Forestry. 83: 93-102.

Irvine, R.J., Broadmeadow, M., Gill., R.M.A. & Albon, S. D. (2007). Deer & Global warming: How will climate change influence deer populations, Deer, Autumn 2007, 34-37.

Milne, J.A., Birch, C.P.D., Hester, A.J., Armstrong, H.M., & Robertson, A. (1998). The impact of vertebrate herbivores on the natural heritage of the Scottish uplands – a review. SNH Review series No. 95. Scottish Natural Heritage, Battleby, Perthshire.

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Grazing management

Armstrong, H.M. & Bullock, D.J. (2004). Stock grazing in woodlands. In: Managing woodlands and their mammals. C.Quine, R.Shore and R.Trout (Eds). Forestry Commission, Edinburgh. 81-86.

Armstrong, H. M., Poulsom, L, Connolly, T. & Peace, A. (2003). A survey of cattle-grazed woodlands in Britain. Report to the Forestry Commission (PDF-667K) . October 2003. 65 pp.

Armstrong, H.M. & Smith, M. (2008) Woods and trees in the uplands – why we might want more. Aspects of Applied Biology, 85, ‘Shaping a vision for the Uplands’. 1-4.

Gill, R. & Armstrong, H.M. (2005). Cattle and Woodlands. In: Deer and Cattle in Woodlands. Proceedings of a workshop held at Marlborough College. 17th December 2004. J.Batten (ed.) English Nature, the Deer Initiative. 10-12.

Hester, A. Kirby, K., Mitchell, F. Gill R., Latham, J. & H. Armstrong (1998). Ungulates and forest management in the British Isles. Chapter 4 In: Humphrey, J., Gill, R.M.A. and Claridge, J. (Eds). Grazing as a management tool in European forest ecosystems. Forestry Commission Technical Paper 25.

Mayle, B. (1999). Domestic stock grazing to enhance woodland biodiversity (PDF-7294K). Forestry Commission Information Note 28. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.

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Deer management

Armstrong, H.M., Gill, R.M.A., Mayle, B.A. & Trout, R.C. (2003). Protecting trees from deer: an overview of current knowledge and future work. Forest Research Annual Report, 2001-2002. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh.

Armstrong, H.M., Bathgate, S. & Handley, P. (2007). Excel red deer population dynamics model. Available from:

Chapman, N.G. & Chapman, D.I. (1982). The fallow deer. Forestry Commission Forest Record, 124.

Dolman, P., Fuller, R., Gill, R., Hooton, D. & Tabor, R. (2010). Escalating ecological impacts of deer in lowland woodland. British Wildlife April 2010 p242-254.

Gill R.M.A. (2001). The deer explosion. Tree News Autumn/Winter 2001.

Gill R.M.A., Johnson A.L., Francis A., Hiscocks K. & Peace A.J. (1996). Changes in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) population density in response to forest habitat succession. Forest Ecology and Management 88 31-41.

Mayle, B. (1999). Managing deer in the countryside (PDF-7884K). Forestry Commission Practice Note, 6.

Mayle, B. Gill, R. & Pepper, H. (1998). Management of deer in the lowlands. Forest research annual report and accounts 1997-98. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh. p51-55.

Ratcliffe, P.R. & Mayle, B.A. (1992). Roe deer biology and management. Forestry Commission Bulletin, 105.

Ratcliffe, P.R. (1987). The management of red deer in upland forests. Forestry Commission Bulletin, 71.

Ratcliffe, P.R. (1985). Glades for deer control in upland forests. Forestry Commission Leaflet, 86.

Springthorpe, G.D. & Myhill, N.G. (1994). Wildlife rangers handbook. Forestry Commission Handbook, 10. (Sections on deer management).

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Deer population density assessment

Campbell, D. Swanson, G.M. & Sales, J. (2004). Comparing the precision and cost-effectiveness of fecal pellet group count methods. Journal of Applied Ecology 41 1185-1196

Gill R.M.A., Thomas, M.L. & Stocker, D. (1997). The use of portable thermal imaging for estimating deer population density in forest habitats. Journal of Applied Ecology, 34 1273-1286.

Hemami, M.R., Watkinson, A. Gill, R.M.A. & Dolman, P. (2007). Estimating abundance of introduced Chinese muntjac Muntiacus reevesi and native roe deer Capreolus capreolus using portable thermal imaging. Mammal Review 37 246-254.

Mayle, B., Doney, J., Lazarus, G., Peace, A. & Smith, D. (1996). Fallow deer (Dama dama L.) defecation rate and its use in determining population size. Suppl. Ric. Biol. Selvaggina XXV 63-78.

Mayle, B., Peace, A. & Gill, R. (1999). How Many Deer? A guide to estimating deer population size. Forestry Commission field book 18. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh. 96p

Mayle, B.A., Putman, R. & Wyllie, I. (2000). The use of trackway counts to establish an index of deer presence. Mammal Review 30 233-237.

Swanson, G., Campbell, D. & Armstrong, H. (2008). Estimating deer abundance in woodlands: the combination plot technique. Forestry Commission Bulletin no. 128. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.

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Tree and woodland impact assessment

Armstrong, H. M., Poulsom, L., Simson, P., Wilson, J. &Tracy D. (2003). Testing methods for monitoring beaver impacts on terrestrial vegetation in Knapdale. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report No.26. 50 pp.

Ferris, R. & Carter, C. (2000). Managing rides, roadsides and edge habitats in Lowland forests. Forestry Commission Bulletin 123.

Ferris-Kaan, R. & Patterson, G.S. (1992). Monitoring vegetation changes in conservation management of forests. Forestry Commission Bulletin, 108.

Melville, R.C., Tee, L.A. & Rennolls, K. (1983). Assessment of wildlife damage in forests. Forestry Commission Leaflet, 82.

Pepper, H. (1998). Nearest neighbour method for quantifying wildlife damage to trees in woodland (PDF-139K). Forestry Commission Practice Note, 1.

Reimoser, F, Armstrong, H. & Suchant, R. (1999). Measuring forest damage of ungulates: what should be considered. Forest Ecology and Management, 120, 47-58.

Thompson, R., Peace, A. & Poulsom, L. (2005). A judgement – based method to identify overgrazing in English upland native woodlands. English Nature Research Reports, No. 621.

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Foraging behaviour of large mammals

Armstrong, H.M. (1996). The grazing behaviour of large herbivores in the Scottish uplands. Scottish Natural Heritage Information and Advisory Note No. 47. Scottish Natural Heritage, Battleby.

Armstrong, H.M. & Robertson, A. (2000). Energetics of free-ranging large herbivores: when should costs affect foraging behaviour? Canadian Journal of Zoology, 78 (9), 1604-1615.

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