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Helping European forest managers and policy-makers choose climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies


There is now a broad consensus within the scientific community that global warming is linked to greenhouse gas emissions and that without major action to mitigate its affects, climate change it could alter or destroy many important ecosystems. But prior to this project, how these agreed “facts” should influence forest policy and management was far less clear. As part of ECHOES, Forest Research worked with partners from 27 countries to explore the vulnerability of European forests and their potential role in mitigation strategies.

Key findings and outputs

The project used regional analyses, case studies and desktop comparative research to produce reports on 24 European countries covering:

  • Extensive, evidence-based assessments on the likely impacts of climate change to tree species, timber productivity, woodland biodiversity, pests and diseases
  • Guidance on impact monitoring and management
  • Recommendations on suitable forest adaptation policies and management strategies
  • Forest carbon accounts and the role of the forestry sector in implementing the Kyoto Protocol
  • Identification of knowledge gaps in the role of forestry in climate change mitigation
  • Policy and operational recommendations for forestry-based mitigation strategies (e.g. bio-energy, wood as a substitute for carbon-intensive materials)

Funders and partners


This project received funding from the EU COST programme (COST Action FP0703).

Forest Research worked with partners from 27 European countries.




Regarding climate change adaptation:

Bruce Nicoll

Regarding climate change impacts:

Duncan Ray

Related pages

Useful sites

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Bruce Nicoll

Principal Scientist

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Duncan Ray

Senior Forest Ecologist