Stem straightness is important in determining tree and log value. The ability to make an effective assessment before harvesting is useful for forest managers and practitioners to improve forecasting, planning, marketing and resource use. This Technical Note describes three methods for assessing stem straightness in standing trees: visual assessment, photogrammetric measurement and terrestrial lidar. It […]
The management of forests and woodlands requires an effective road network to provide access for the machinery required to plant and harvest trees and extract timber and wood products. Roads are also used by visitors for access and activities such as cycling and mountain biking. Forest roads and bridges must be constructed so that they […]
Collisions with fences can be a significant source of mortality for woodland birds such as capercaillie and black grouse. The construction of new fencing to protect woodland and trees in habitats supporting these two grouse species should be minimised, and the fences removed as soon as management objectives have been achieved. Fences that are necessary […]
The demands for sustainably produced wood as a raw material for a variety of end uses is placing increased pressure on the forest resource in the UK. Knowledge of the timber properties of trees and logs is important to ensure that harvested wood is directed to its most appropriate end use. Current harvesting practice in […]
This Technical Note provides guidance on the selection of appropriate spray nozzle(s) for use in the application of pesticides. Influences on selection, such as type of target, weather conditions, pesticide formulation, spray equipment and spray quality, are described. Information is provided on the British Crop Protection Nozzle Code. Types of nozzle and their functions, care […]
This Technical Note outlines legislation governing pesticide use and sets out training and certification requirements relevant to pesticide storage. It provides recommendations on planning, constructing and maintaining permanent and mobile pesticide stores and gives guidance on the management and safe storage of pesticides. Advice is also given on waste disposal, health and safety issues and […]
This Technical Note outlines these application methods and provides details on the components of mechanised sprayers and herbicide delivery systems. Information is also provided on pre- and poststorage maintenance, sprayer testing and spray drift management. Conclusions and recommendations give guidance for the use of mechanised sprayers in forestry.
This Technical Note discusses the benefits of traction aids in forestry. Generic types of traction aids and their effects on machine travel are described. Guidance is provided on when and where traction aids should be used along with their characteristics under different operating conditions and their selection according to site. Advantages and disadvantages of using […]
This Technical Note provides guidance on matching harvesting systems to site conditions to reduce the risk of soil damage and water pollution. It updates some previously identified issues and describes some new techniques. Information is provided on site planning, selection of machines, brash mat construction and maintenance, forest road approaches/drainage and roadside stacking.
Small woodlands in Great Britain are a potential source of woodfuel for local heating, but there are difficulties identifying efficient harvesting systems. This Technical Note provides guidance on the selection of appropriate systems for small-scale harvesting operations. It considers four factors that influence the overall selection: i) woodland type and woodfuel product(s); ii) site and […]
The use of large-scale timber extraction machinery during harvesting places high load-bearing forces on extraction routes. Minimising this impact is particularly important on more sensitive sites. This Technical Note gives the results from two trials that assessed extraction route formations on deep peat sites. Information is provided on the evaluation of route construction materials, including […]
This Technical Note focuses on best practice and suitability of mounding methods using mechanised excavators on a variety of site types. Dense brash is recognised as a major hindrance to mounding. The success of techniques for dealing with this problem and brash mats produced during mechanised harvesting are discussed as are methods of assisting an […]
This Technical Note provides advice and information to forest managers, woodland owners and contractors on the operation of debuttressing standing timber prior to felling by mechanical harvesting machines. It reviews current training, guidance and practice, and provides information about the decision process to be taken on when and how to carry out the debuttressing operation.
This Technical Note provides an introduction to the legislative background to respiratory protective equipment (RPE) and discusses the need for suitable RPE. The terminology used in respirator selection is described along with relevant details of the hazards that RPE can protect against. Emphasis is placed on selecting equipment that is suitable for each situation in […]
This Technical Note uses current information gathered from manufacturers and suppliers of equipment, together with limited noise measurements obtained from machinery studies, to assess the noise exposure levels of forest operations. From evaluation of these data, guidance is given on the selection of appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE). Loud impact or explosive noises, for example […]
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