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Conversion factors

Conversion factors between cubic metres and green tonnes

The following factors have been used in Chapter 2 (Timber) to convert between cubic metres (m3) and green tonnes:

conversionFactors_2018_width-800.png

The diagram shows separate conversion factors to use when converting softwood (SW) and hardwood (HW) with arrows to indicate the direction of conversion. For example, to convert 1,000 green tonnes of SW into an under bark volume, the 1,000 green tonnes should be multiplied by the conversion factor of 0.982 to give 982m3 underbark. There is no difference between the softwood and hardwood conversion factors for converting between standing volume and overbark volumes.

The following factors have been used in Chapter 3 (Trade) to convert between cubic metres (m3) and metric tonnes:

In this case, all the factors are expressed as volumes (in m3) per weight (in tonnes). Therefore, to convert 1,000 tonnes of sawn softwood into a volume, the 1,000 tonnes should be multiplied by 1.82 to give 1,820 m3.

Conversion factors between cubic metres and metric tonnes

Product m3 / tonne
Fuelwood, including wood for charcoal 1.38
Wood chips, sawdust, etc 1.48
Industrial roundwood (wood in the rough) – softwood 1.43
Industrial roundwood (wood in the rough) – hardwood 1.25
Sawnwood – softwood 1.82
Sawnwood – hardwood 1.43
Veneer sheets 1.33
Plywood, particleboard 1.54
Hardboard 1.053
MDF (medium density fibreboard) 1.667
Insulating board – density 0.35-0.5 g/cm3 1.667
Insulating board – other 4.00

The following factors have been used in Chapter 3 (Trade) where required to convert to wood raw material equivalent, which indicates the volume of wood (in m3 underbark) needed to produce one unit of a final product:

Conversion factors to Wood Raw Material Equivalent (wrme) underbark

Product Measurement unit Factor to wrme underbark
Fuelwood tonnes 1.20
Wood charcoal tonnes 6.00
Chips, sawdust, etc tonnes 1.20
Industrial roundwood (rough, treated) m3 1.10
Industrial roundwood (in the rough) m3 1.00
Sleepers m3 1.58
Softwood sawnwood m3 2.00
Hardwood sawnwood tonnes 2.50
Wastepaper tonnes 2.80
Mechanical pulp tonnes 2.50
Chemical dissolving pulp tonnes 2.50
Sulphate pulp, unbleached tonnes 6.00
Sulphate pulp, bleached tonnes 4.50
Sulphite pulp tonnes 5.00
Semi-chemical woodpulp tonnes 2.75
Veneer (< 6mm) tonnes 3.45
Other wood-based panels tonnes 2.50
Woodwool, woodflour tonnes 1.70
Packing cases, pallets tonnes 2.00
Other manufactured wood tonnes 2.50
Newsprint tonnes 2.80
Writing & printing paper, uncoated tonnes 3.50
Other paper & paperboard tonnes 2.50

Notes:

1. A revised set of figures was produced in FC Technical Paper 19, “Revised Forecasts of the Supply and Demand for Wood in the UK” (Forestry Commission, 1996), but these have not been used in this publication.

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