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Before Roman times, as much as a 25% of the British Isles is thought to have been covered by wetlands. But by the 1980s, wetlands covered only 5% of the UK landscape (Rackham, 1986). This decline is thought to have been caused primarily by the combined impacts of drainage, nutrient enrichment and urbanisation.
Recently, our awareness of the ecological importance of wetlands has grown, increasing interest in wetland creation and restoration (Odland, 1997). A wide range of initiatives are now in place to reverse this decline by creating and restoring wetland systems in both rural and urban environments in recognition of their physicochemical, socioeconomic and conservation benefits.
Ecologically valuable wetlands with potentially high species diversity can be created even in intensively used, secondary urban recreational areas, provided the water body and its surroundings are suitably designed (Gemmell and Connell, 1984; Stewart et al., 1998; McKinstry and Anderson, 2002). Brownfield land is increasingly recognised as having potential for engineered wetland-creation schemes. For example, gravel pits provide good opportunities for wetland creation or restoration due to their relative abundance, geographical location and low potential contamination risk (Merritt, 1994).
Wetlands in urban regions take on human-related values that they lack in non-urban areas, as they provide people with contact to nature, and opportunities for recreation, that are otherwise rare in the urban landscape (Ehrenfeld, 2000). So integrating wetlands into planned landscapes requires not only an understanding of wetland ecology and hydrology, but also an understanding of the human perceptions of natural environment and the importance of social factors.
Greenspace is an important part of complex urban ecosystems, and benefits urban communities environmentally, aesthetically, recreationally and economically (McPherson, 1992; Bolund and Hunhammar, 1999; Beer et al., 2003; Jackson, 2003; Li et al., 2005). Areas designated as urban greenspace within new projects must adhere to sound ecological principles (Sellers et al., 2006).
Ecosystems will develop best if located near, or adjacent to, an existing or remnant area of the same type, and smaller habitats are likely to be less resilient to disturbance (Zedler, 1997). It is important to consider scale and surrounding land use when engineering wetlands – a wetland that appears to be extensive at the local scale may be an isolated patch when evaluated at a regional scale (Whited, 2000). As engineered wetlands created on brownfield land are often located in urban areas, potential hydrological and ecological isolation is important. At the same time, careful management is needed to control the increased risk of colonisation by non-native invasive species from surrounding gardens and parks.
One complication in applying ecological principles to urban greenspace projects is the public’s preference for certain types of natural landscape – the preferred habitat type may not always support the richest wildlife structure or species diversity. For instance, people generally express more pleasure and enjoyment when shown scenes of open water with mown lawns along the banks that when shown natural open-water wetlands with tall vegetation around the margins. But the habitat and species diversity of a natural wetland are much higher than those of a less diverse, but visually pleasing pond (Tilton, 1995). A further problem with negative public perception is that the area may quickly become depreciated with litter, disrepair, crime and pollution, whatever the perceived benefits it may seem to offer (Pauleit, 2003).
Although landscape-level processes dominate wetland ecosystem development and sustainability, wetland creation and restoration decisions are typically made on a project-by-project basis (White and Fennessy, 2005). To reduce the effects of hydrological and ecological isolation, wetland creation and protection needs to be expanded beyond the immediate area in an effort to integrate wetland habitats into the wider landscape (Tilton, 1995). With careful planning, design, implementation and public education, wetland habitats can be fully integrated into planned landscapes without destroying valuable benefits provided by wetland ecosystems.
To gain public support for wetlands, their importance as a habitat needs to be communicated to the public. Public participation is a key factor to consider, and it is important to ensure greater public input into formal decision-making from the start of the planning process. The outcomes are improved guarantees for the public and better acceptance of plans and projects (Mermet, 1997).
Any greenspace- or habitat-creation scheme should take into account economic, environmental, biological, recreational and aesthetic issues. A good scheme should aim to protect and/or restore a healthy and biodiverse environment, create an interconnected infrastructure, and involve communities in the decision-making processes (De Sousa, 2003).
An EPSRC-funded research project is being conducted by Forest Research and the University of Reading through the Sustainable Urban Brownfield Regeneration: Integrated Management (SUBR:IM Consortium). This aims to establish the best practice for the design and management of successfully engineered wetland habitats on brownfield land.
The research has identified key factors responsible for the success or failure of existing engineered wetlands on brownfield sites in the UK.
Russia Dock Woodland was created on the infilled site of Russia Dock, formerly part of the Surrey Commercial Docks. It was developed in the late 1970s, and handed over to Southwark Council in 1982 as part of an overall regeneration plan by London Docklands Development Corporation to provide an area of amenity and ecology at the centre of the newly redeveloped housing areas in Rotherhithe.
Wetland areas and water features were included in the design as interconnecting streams and ponds, maintained by a water-pumping system. But the knowledge and resources required to maintain the water feature component of the restoration were not established at the outset, and following the drowning of a child there was an unwillingness to make it work, so many areas were allowed to deteriorate and dry up (Jackson, 1986).
Russia Dock still has problems today with eutrophication of stagnant water areas, invasive species in the form of Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica), and an often poor aesthetic quality due to litter and vandalism. But lessons have been learned from the early days of development, and increased resources and funding, together with a strong group of Friends, is helping to maintain and enhance the site. Positive developments include the introduction of community wardens to control litter and dog fouling, plus invaluable education work with local schools and community groups.
A strong science base is critical to address the issues surrounding the potential establishment of wetlands. The Forest Hydrology Programme at Forest Research involves a number of collaborative studies on the sustainable establishment of wetlands in the urban environment.
Beer, A.R., Delshammar, T. and Schildwacht, P.A. (2003). Changing understanding of the role of greenspace in high-density housing: a European perspective. Built Environment 29: 132–143.
Bolund, P. and Hunhammar, S. (1999). Ecosystem services in urban areas. Ecological Economics 29: 293–301.
De Sousa, C.A. (2003). Turning brownfields into green space in the City of Toronto. Landscape and Urban Planning 62: 181–198.
Ehrenfeld, J.G. (2000). Evaluating wetlands within an urban context. Ecological Engineering 15: 253–265.
Gemmell, R.P. and Connell, R.K. (1984). Conservation and creation of wildlife habitats on industrial land in Greater Manchester. Landscape Planning 11: 175–186.
Jackson, L.E. (2003). The relationship of urban design to human health and condition. Landscape and Urban Planning 64: 191–200.
Jackson, P. (1986). Landscape as a catalyst. Landscape Design 163: 38–41.
Li, F., Wang, R., Paulussen, J. and Liu, X. (2005). Comprehensive concept planning of urban greening based on ecological principles: a case study in Beijing, China. Landscape and Urban Planning 72: 325–336.
McKinstry, M.C. and Anderson, S.H. (2002). Creating wetlands for waterfowl in Wyoming. Ecological Engineering 18: 293–304.
McPherson, E.G. (1992). Accounting for benefits and costs of urban greenspace. Landscape and Urban Planning 22: 41–51.
Mermet, L. (1997). Participation, strategies and ethics: roles of people in wetland management. Landscape and Urban Planning 20: 231–237.
Merritt, A. (1994.) Wetlands, Industry and Wildlife – A Manual of Principles and Practices. Slimbridge: Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust.
Odland, A. (1997). Development of vegetation in created wetlands in western Norway. Aquatic Botany 59: 45–62.
Pauleit, S. (2003). Perspectives on urban greenspace in European cities. Built Environment 29: 89–93.
Rackham, O. (1986). The History of the Countryside. J.M. Dent & Sons.
Sellers, G., Hutchings, T.R. and Moffat, A.J. (2006). Learning from experience: creating sustainable urban greenspaces from brownfield sites. In: C.A. Brebbia and U. Mander (eds), Brownfields III. Prevention, Assessment, Rehabilitation and Development of Brownfield Sites. Southampton: WIT Press, pp. 163–172.
Stewart, L.K., Hudak, P.F. and Doyle, R.D. (1998). Modeling hydrologic alterations to a developing wetland in an abandoned borrow pit. Journal of Environmental Management 53: 231–239.
Tilton, D.L. (1995). Integrating wetlands into planned landscapes. Landscape and Urban Planning 32: 205–209.
White, D. and Fennessy, S. (2005). Modeling the suitability of wetland restoration potential at the watershed scale. Ecological Engineering 24: 359–377.
Whited, D., Galatowitsch, S., Tester, J.R., Schik, K., Lehtinen, R. and Husveth, J. (2000). The importance of local and regional factors in predicting effective conservation: planning strategies for wetland bird communities in agricultural and urban landscapes. Landscape and Urban Planning 49: 49–65.
Zedler, J.B. (1997). Restoring tidal wetlands: a scientific view. National Wetlands News 19): 8–11.
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