Continuous cover silviculture
The use of natural regeneration to create a varied forest structure containing a range of species
Continuous cover silviculture - Regeneration of continuous cover forests
Understanding the factors involved in regeneration for continuous cover forestry
Management of long-term experiments
The Long-term Experiments project conserves the best field experiments as a strategic resource that can be accessed by researchers to address questions about sustainable forest management.
- Leader of the Long-term Experiments project
- Upland Silviculture
- Continuous Cover Forestry
- Management of broadleaved species
- Mixed species stands
- Emerging species, forest resilience and adaptation
- Management of natural regeneration and underplanting
Controlling rhododendron through the use of herbicides
To control Rhododendron spread, its eradication, usually by cutting and removal, is an accepted management practice. The regrowth of shoots on rhododendron stumps is however a common. Two papers explore different aspects of this problem.
Peer reviewed journal articles
Poeydebat, C., Jactel, H., Moreira, X., Koricheva, J., Barsoum, N., Bauhus, J., Eisenhauer, N., Ferlian, O., Francisco, M., Gottschall, F., Gravel, D., Mason, B., Muiruri, E., Muys, B., Nock, C., Paquette, A., Ponette, Q., Scherer-Lorenzen, M., Stokes, V., Staab, M., Verheyen, K., Castagneyrol, B. (2021) Climate affects neighbour-induced changes in leaf chemical defences and tree diversity-herbivory relationships. Functional Ecology, 35(1):67-81.
Mason, W.L., Stokes, V.J. and Forster, J. (2020) Proportions of a pine nurse influences overyielding in planted spruce forests of Atlantic Europe. Forest Ecology and Management, DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2020.118836
Willoughby, I.H., Stokes, V.J., Forster, J. and Harmer, R. (2020) Can direct seeding be used to enhance the restoration of native species to conifer plantations on ancient woodland sites? Scottish Forestry, 74(3); 20-28.
Stokes, V. and Mason, B. (2020) Management options for mixed-species natural regeneration: results from an experiment in the North York Moors. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, Vol 114 (4), 268-273.
Kerr, G., Haufe, J., Stokes, V. and Mason, B. (2020) Establishing robust species mixtures. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 114(3): 164-170.
Stokes, V., Kerr, G. and Connolly, T. (2020) Underplanting is a practical silvicultural method for regenerating and diversifying conifer stands in Britain. Forestry, DOI:10.1093/forestry/cpaa027.
Harvey, T. and Stokes, V. (2020) Using sheep’s wool to reduce browsing damage on underplanted European silver fir seedlings. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, Vol 114 (1), 27-32.
Savill, P., Stokes, V., Jinks, R., Mason, W.L. and Wilson, S.McG. (2018) Hybrid poplars and aspens. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 112, 237-248.
Willoughby, I.H., Forster, J., Stokes, V.J. (2018) Gaultheria shallon can be controlled by the herbicides picloram, triclopyr or glyphosate if they are applied at the correct time of year. New Forests, 49 (6), 757-774.
Stokes, V., Lee, S., Forster, J. and Fletcher, A. (2018) A comparison of Sitka spruce x white spruce hybrid families as an alternative to pure Sitka spruce plantations in upland Britain. Forestry, 91 (5): 650-661.
Willoughby, I.H., Stokes, V.J. and Edwards, C. (2017) Ecoplugs containing glyphosate can be effective in preventing regrowth from Rhododendron ponticum stumps. Scottish Forestry, 71(3): 32-39.
Savill, P., Wilson, S., Mason, W., Jinks, R., Stokes, V. (2017) Alternative spruces to Sitka and Norway Part 1 – Serbian spruce (Picea omorika). Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 111, 32-39.
Savill, P., Wilson, S, Mason, W, Jinks, R, Stokes, V, Christian, T (2017) Alternative spruces to Sitka and Norway Part 2 – Oriental or Caucasian spruce (Picea orientalis) and the American and Asian species. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 111, 88-97.
Ian H. Willoughby, Victoria J. Stokes and Tom Connolly (2017) Using Ecoplugs containing glyphosate can be an effective method of killing standing trees. Forestry, 90, 719-727.
Harmer, R., Kerr, G., Stokes, V. and Connolly, T. (2017) The influence of thinning intensity and bramble control on ground flora development in a mixed broadleaved woodland. Forestry, 90: 247-257.
Kerr, G., Snellgrove, M., Hale, S., Stokes, V. 2017. The Bradford-Hutt system for transforming young even-aged stands to continuous cover management. Forestry, 90: 581-593.
Kerr, G., Stokes, V., Peace, A., Fletcher, A., Samuel, S., Mackintosh, H. and Mason, W.L. (2016) No seed zone effects on the survival, growth, and stem form of Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis) in Britain. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 46:427-436
Ian H.Willoughby, Marion K. Seier, Victoria J. Stokes, Sarah E. Thomas and Sonal Varia (2015) Synthetic herbicides were more effective than a bioherbicide based on Chondrostereum purpureum in reducing resprouting of Rhododendron ponticum, a host of Phytophthora ramorum in the UK. Forestry 88 (3): 336-344.
Kerr, G., Stokes, V., Peace, A. and Jinks, J. (2015) Effects of provenance on survival, growth and stem form of European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Britain. European Journal of Forest Research. DOI: 10.1007/s10342-014-0856-9.
Willoughby, I.H. and Stokes, V.J. (2014) Mixture B new formulation adjuvant increases the rainfastness and hence effectiveness of glyphosate for rhododendron control. Forestry 88 (2), 1-8, 172-179.
Stokes, V.J. and Willoughby, I.H. (2014) Early weed control can increase long-term growth, yield and carbon sequestration of Sitka spruce stands in Britain. Forestry, 87(3): 425-435. DOI: 10.1093/forestry/cpu001
Stokes, V. (2013) Cone production of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in stands undergoing transformation to continuous cover forestry. Quarterly Journal of Forestry. 107 (2): 101-111.
Stokes, V. and Kerr, G. (2013). Long-term growth and yield effects of respacing natural regeneration of Sitka spruce in Britain. European Journal of Forest Research, 132 (2), 351-362. (DOI) 10.1007/s10342-012-0679-5.
Stokes, V. (2012). Some biodegradable mulch materials provide effective weed control during establishment of ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) on farm woodland sites. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 106 (4): 257-268.
Kerr, G., Stokes, V., Peace, A. and Wylder, B. (2011). Natural regeneration of conifers: helping forest managers to predict success. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 106 (1), 23-30.
Stokes, V.J., Willoughby, I. 2011. The impact of bracken control on establishment of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra sub sp. laricio (Maire)) and pine weevil (Hylobius abietis (L.)) damage. In: Vegetation 2011, management [held at] Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, 27-28 April 2011, T Sparks, C Britt, A Cherrill, R Marrs, S Mortimer, R Pywell, I Rotherham, V J Stokes and D Westbury, eds. Aspects of Applied Biology 108. Association of Applied Biologists, Wellesbourne, Warwick. 217-224.
Kerr, G., Stokes, V., Peace, A. and Wylder, B. (2011). Prediction of conifer natural regeneration in a ‘data-poor’ environment. Scottish Forestry, 65 (4), 28-36.
Stokes, V. and Willoughby, I. (2011). A comparison of cover crops, direct seeding and herbicides in the establishment of ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior (L.) in lowland Britain. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 105 (1): 19-27.
Kerr, G., Morgan, G., Blyth, J. and Stokes, V.J. (2010). Transformation from even-aged plantations to an irregular forest: the world’s longest running trial area at Glentress, Scotland. Forestry 83 (3) 329-344.
Petrokofsky, G., Brown, N.D., Hemery, G.E., Woodward, S., Wilson, E., Weatherall, A., Stokes, V., Smithers, R.J., Sangster, M., Russell, K., Pullin, A.S., Price, C., Morecroft, M., Malins, M., Lawrence, A., Kirby, K.J., Godbold, D., Charman, E., Boshier, D., Bosbeer, S. and Arnold, J.E.M. (2010). A participatory process for identifying and prioritizing policy-relevant research questions in natural resource management: a case study from the UK forestry sector. Forestry 83 (4): 357-367.
Stokes, V., Morecroft, M. and Morison, J. (2010). Comparison of leaf water use efficiency of oak and sycamore in the canopy over two growing seasons. Trees, Structure and Function. 24 (2): 297-306. DOI: 10.1007/s00468-009-0399-8.
Stokes, V., Forster, J., Kerr, G. 2017. A comparison of Sitka x white spruce hybrids with QCI Sitka spruce. Internal Report to Forest Enterprise England, February 2017. 24pp.
Willoughby, I., Forster, J., Stokes, V. 2016. Gaultheria shallon can be effectively controlled by the herbicides picloram, triclopyr or glyphosate if they are applied at the correct time of year. Internal Report to Forest Enterprise England. May 2016, 38pp.
Stokes, V. 2015. Short Rotation Forestry Trials in Scotland: Progress report 2014. Internal report to Forestry Commission Scotland. 53 pp.
Willoughby, I., Stokes, V., Saunders, C., Tubby, K. 2015. The use of Ecoplugs for chemical thinning. Internal report to Forestry Commission. 37 pp.
Stokes, V. 2015. Summary report on three Forest Research experiments on hybrid spruce. Internal report to Forest Enterprise England. 11 pp.
Willoughby, I., Stokes, V. 2014. Cycloxydim may be a partial future alternative to propyzamide for the control of Molinia caerulea, Deschampsia flexuosa, Deschampsia cespitosa, Calamagrostis epigejos and Holcus lanatus. Internal report to Forest Enterprise Scotland, Forest Enterprise England and Natural Resources Wales. 31 pp.
Stokes, V. 2014. Short Rotation Forestry Trials in Scotland: Progress report 2012 and 2013. Internal report to Forestry Commission Scotland. 41 pp.
Stokes, V. 2011. Use of biodegradable mulch materials in the establishment of ash trees. Internal report to Forestry Commission. 10 pp.
Stokes, V. (2011). The impact of forests and forest management on slope stability (PDF-92K). Internal report to the Forestry Commission. 7 pp.
Contract and project reports
Webber, J., de Leij, F., Hutchings, T., Kalantarzadeh, M., Seier, M., Stokes, V. (Editor), Thomas, S., Varia, S., Wall, M., Willoughby, I., Lawrence, V., Albertini, A., Brunt, A., Ireland, D. 2013. Determining best methods for the clearance and disposal of key host plants, especially invasive Rhododendron, for the control of the quarantine plant pathogens Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae. Final Report for Defra Project CTX0907. 152 pp.
Webber, J., de Leij, F., Hutchings, T., Ireland, D., Kalantarzadeh, M., Seier, M., Stokes, V. (Editor), Thomas, S., Varia, S., Wall, M., Willoughby, I. 2013. Determining best methods for the clearance and disposal of key host plants, especially invasive Rhododendron, for the control of the quarantine plant pathogens Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae: Best Practice Guidance. Best Practice Guidance for Defra Project CTX0907. 12 pp.
Trade journal and newsletter articles
Stokes, V., Martin, S. 2016. Taking the long-view: using past research experiments to guide future forestry. Forestry and Timber News, February 2016 Issue, p12-13.
Stokes, V., Martin, P. 2015. Exploring the potential of short rotation forestry in Scotland. Forestry and Timber News, June 2015, pp 16-17.
Stokes, V., Kerr, G. 2010. The evidence supporting the use of CCF in adapting forests to the risks of climate change. Forestry and Timber News, December 2010, 14-17.
Stokes, V., Kerr, G. 2010. Undercover for climate change. Chartered Forester, Spring 2010, 14-15.