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Georgios Xenakis

BSc, MSc, PhD, MICFor

Home staff Georgios Xenakis

My work focuses on measuring the carbon, water and energy balances of upland Sitka spruce plantations. Using micrometeorological techniques and eco-physiological process-based models, I quantify the effect forest management has on carbon dynamics. I am also the manager of the Harwood Forest GHG monitoring site. My other research focuses on the drought effect on trees, both on the ecosystem and individual tree scale. I currently lead a manipulation experiment investigating the physiology of young trees during the recovery from drought.

I studied for a BSc in Forestry with the Department of Forestry of the TEI of Kavala, Greece (1996-2000). I then studied for an MSc in Resource Management (2001-2002) and a PhD (2002-2007) in Forest Ecophysiology and process-based modelling with the University of Edinburgh. I first joined Forest Research in 2006 as a junior researcher for four years working on modelling climate change adaptation on ecological species suitability and process-based modelling of forest carbon sequestration. From 2010 to 2013, I did my post-doctoral studies at the University of Edinburgh, working on modelling soil-plant-atmosphere interaction in the Arctic tundra. In 2013 I re-joined Forest Research working as Tree Ecophysiologist for the EU project ThermoLiDAR, supporting ecophysiological data collection and process-based modelling. Since February 2015, I have been working as a Scientist managing the Harwood Forest GHG monitoring site


  • Professional member of the Institute of Chartered Foresters
  • Associate member of the British Ecological Society
Forestry Staff XenakisGeorgios.2e16d0ba.fill 600x600 1

Georgios Xenakis

BSc, MSc, PhD, MICFor
Climate change

Northern Research Station


Midlothian EH25 9SY

Related Research


Harwood Forest GHG monitoring site

Measuring forest carbon balance and effect of harvesting

Status current

A project within the EFI Network Fund, developing a FOSS GIS modelling platform for stand growth and risk of wind damage.

Related Publications


Comparison of the carbon, water, and energy balances of mature stand and clear-fell stages in a British Sitka spruce forest and the impact of the 2018 drought

Sitka spruce is the major conifer species in British upland forests and is predominantly managed as even-aged, single-species plantations with rotation lengths of less than 50 years using a “patch clear-felling” system. Evidence on the impact of clear-felling on the carbon, water and energy balances of plantation forestry is sparse and extreme weather events, such […]


Other Research

Investigating the physiology of young seedlings during drought recovery

Advising process-based model development and other modelling activities within the Climate Change Research Group

Peer reviewed journal articles

Mazzola, V., Perks, M., Smith, J., Yeluripati, J., Xenakis. G., 2021. Assessing soil carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from a Scots pine raised bog-edge-woodland. Journal of Environmental Management. Accepted.

Yamulki, S., Forster, J., Xenakis, G., Ash, A., Brunt, J., Perks, M., Morison, J.I.L. 2021. Effects of clearfell harvesting on soil CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes in an upland Sitka spruce stand in England. Biogeoscience, 18, 4227-424,

Lembrechts, J., van den Hoogen, J., Aalto, J., SOILTEMP consortium (incl. Xenakis, G.,). 2021. Global maps of soil temperature. EcoEvoRxiv. 10.32942/

Xenakis, G., Ash, A., Siebicke,s L., Perks, M., Morison, J.I.L. 2021. Comparison of the carbon, water, and energy balances of mature stand and clear-fell stages in a British Sitka spruce forest and the impact of the 2018 drought. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Volume 306, 108437

Mazzola, V., Perks, M., Smith, J., Yeluripati, J., Xenakis, G. 2020. Seasonal patterns of greenhouse gas emissions from a forest-to-bog restored site in northern Scotland – influence of micro-topography and vegetation on carbon dioxide and methane dynamics. European Journal of Soil Science72 (3), 1332-1353.

Navaro, R. M., Beira, J. , Suarez, J., Xenakis, G., Sanchez-Salguero, R., Hernencez-Clemente, R., 2016. Growth decline assessment in Pinus sylvestris L., and Pinus nigra Arnold. forest by using 3-PG model. Forest Systems. 25(3),

Lonsdale, J., Xenakis, G., Perks, M. Mencuccini, M. (2015). A comparison of methods for quantifying standing carbon in UK Scots pine forests. iForest, 8 (5), 596-605, doi: 10.3832/ifor1403-008.

Xenakis, G. and Williams, M., (2014). Comparing microbial and chemical kinetics for modelling soil organic carbon decomposition using the DecoChem v1.0 and DecoBio v1.0 models, Geoscientific Model Development. 7, 1519-1533.

Black, K., Creamer, R., Xenakis, G., and Cook, S., (2014). Improving forest soil carbon models using spatial data and GIS approaches. Geoderma, 232-234, 487-499.

Xenakis, G., Ray, D., Mencuccini, M., (2012). Effects of climate and site characteristics on Scots pine growth in Scotland. European Journal of Forest Research. 131, 427-439.

Black, K., Xenakis, G., Ray, D. (2010). Climate change impacts and adaptive strategies. Irish Forestry, 67, 66 – 85.

Minunno, F., Xenakis, G., Perks, M. and Mencuccini, M. (2010). Calibration and validation of a simplified process-based model for the prediction of carbon balance of Scottish Sitka spruce plantations. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 40, 2411-2426.

Ray, D., Xenakis, G., Tene, A. and Black, K. (2009). Developing a site classification system to assess the impact of climate change on species selection in Ireland. Irish Forestry, 66, 101 – 122.

Ray, D., Xenakis, G., Semmler, T. and Black, K. (2008). The impact of climate change on forests in Ireland and some options for adaptation. Proceedings of the conference “Forestry, Carbon and Climate Change – local and international perspectives”. 19 September 2007, Glenview Hotel, Co Wicklow, Ireland, COFORD

Xenakis, G., Ray, D., Mencuccini, M., (2008). Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis from a coupled 3-PG and soil organic matter decomposition model. Ecological Modelling, 219, 1 – 16

Xenakis, G., 2007. Assessment of carbon sequestration and timber production of Scots pine across Scotland using the process-based model 3-PGN. PhD thesis. The University of Edinburgh.

Trade articles

Xenakis, G., 2019. Drought impacts research: Monitoring stations deep in the forest gives Forest Research scientist Dr Georgios Xenakis and insight into the impact of the 2018 drought on the carbon capture an upland conifer stand. Chartered Forester, Institute of Chartered Foresters, Edinburgh.


Xenakis, G. FREddyPro: Post-Processing EddyPro Full Output File. Edinburgh, UK. R package version 1.0.1.

Smith, J.U., Graves, P., Nayak, D.R., Smith, P., Perks, M., Gardiner, B., Miller, D., Nolan, A., Morrice, J., Xenakis G. 2011. Carbon implications of windfarms located on peatlands – update of the Scottish government carbon calculator tool. CR/2010/05. August 2011. Final Report.

Scientific conferences and workshops (last 5 years)

Wilkinson, M., Xenakis, G., Bell, M., Baer, T., 2021. Measuring and monitoring trees and forests using a novel IoT approach. EGU 2021 General Assembly, Online.

Xenakis, G., Ash, A., Siebicke, L., Perks, M., Morison, J. I. L. 2020. Impact of the 2018 drought on carbon, water and energy exchange of a mature Sitka spruce and a restock site on organo-mineral soil. ICOS Science Conference 2020 – “Knowledge for shaping the future – understanding our earths’ bioeochemical processes”. Oral presentation. Online.

Xenakis, G., Wilkinson, M., Perks, M., and Morison, J., 2019. The impact of the 2018 drought on carbon capture of two major UK forest types. Poster presentation. 1st Royal Meteorological Society Climate Change Forum. June 2019, London UK.

Locatelli, T., Xenakis, G., Tomé, M., Barreiro, S., Donis, J., Zachara, T., Bengoetxea, N. G., Gonzalez, A. A., Blennow, K., Gardiner, B. 2020. FOSPREF-Wind: considerations from the development of a climate-smart FOSS platform for wind risk management under a changing climate. IUFRO 2020 Wind and Trees Conference, 24-28 February. Rotorua, New Zealand.

Mazzola, V., Xenakis, G., Perks, M., Yeluripati, J. Smith, J., 2019. Assessment of NEE and CH4 fluxes from a forest-to-bog resoration in Scotland. EGU 2019 General Assembly. 7 – 12 April 2019, Vienna, Austria.

Xenakis, G., Wilkinson, M., Ash, A., Krivtsov, V, Siebicke, L., Morison, J., Perks, M. 2017. Recovery of summer net ecosystem exhange two years after clear-felling of a Sitka spruce plantation on organo-mineral soil. Poster presentation. Potsdam GHG flux workshop. From Photosystems to Ecosystems, 24-26 October 2017, Potsdam, Germany.

Yamulki, S., Xenakis, G., Ash, A., Brunt, J., Krivtsov, V., Perks, M., Morison, J. 2017. Effect of clear-fell harvesting on soil CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes from an upland Sitka spruce forest in England. Poster presentation. EGU 2017 General Assembly. 23 – 28 April 2017, Vienna, Austria.

Xenakis, G., Ash, A., Krivtsov, V., Wilkinson, M., Yamulki, S., Toet, S., Kean, B., Perks, M., Ineson, P., Morison, M. 2017. High frequency measurements of greenhouse gases on organo-mineral soils using Skyline, a novel automated technology. Oral presentation. Research in the Flow Country IV: Thinking Big. Thurso, 22 – 24 March 2017.

Mazzola, V., Xenakis, G., Smith, J, Yeluripati, J., Khomik, M., Perks, M. 2017. Novel in-situ assessment of CO2 & CH4 fluxes from a forest-to-bog restored site in Forsinard. Oral presentation. Research in the Flow Country IV: Thinking Big. Thurso, 22 – 24 March 2017.#

Mazzola, V., Xenakis, G., Smith, J, Yeluripati, J., Khomik, M., Perks, M. 2017. GHG flux balance in Northern Peatlands: Novel in-situ assessment of CO2 & CH4 fluxes from a forest-to-bog restored site in Forsinard. Poster presentation. Research in the Flow Country IV: Thinking Big. Thurso, 22 – 24 March 2017.

Suarez, J. C., Xenakis, G., Smigaj, M., Anolin, R. 2016. Development of an energy balance model for estimating canopy conductance from airborne thermal data. ForestSAT 2016, 14-18 November 2016. Santiago, Chile.

Toet, S., Kean, B., Yamulki, S., Blei, E., Gibson-Poole, S., Xenakis, G., Perks, M., Morison, J. I., Ineson, P., 2016. Upscaling of greenhouse gas emissions in upland forestry following clearfell. EGU 2016 General Assembly. 17 – 22 April 2016, Vienna, Austria.

Xenakis, G. Perks, M. Harris, Z. M., McCalmont J., Rylett, D., Brooks, M., Evans, J. G., Finch, J., Rowe, R., Morrison, R., Alberti, G., Donnison, I., Siebicke, L., Morison, J., Taylor, G., McNamara, N. P. 2016. Net ecosystem exchange from five land-use transitions to bioenergy crops from four locations across the UK. Poster presentation. EGU 2016 General Assembly. 17 – 22 April 2016, Vienna, Austria.

Xenakis, G. 2015. The Harwood campaign results. GREENHOUSE project meeting. Royal Society of Edinburgh, Edinburgh.

Xenakis, G., Wilkinson, M., Perks, M. Morison, J., 2015. A comparison of atmospheric carbon exchange at two contrasting UK forest sites. Poster presentation. GHG Flux Workshop. Potsdam, Germany.