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The collection of precipitation and throughfall (precipitation passing through the canopy) enables the calculation of fluxes for each site. Interception by the canopy is approximately 21% for broadleaved trees and 53% for coniferous species leading to a much higher water flux for the oak (66%) compared to the conifers (47%).

Evidence of changes in deposition chemistry

Significant declines in sulphur deposition and acidity have been detected at the sites.

Total Sulphur Flux Level 2.png

Total Sulphur deposition flux across the Level 2 plots

Nitrogen deposition shows a decline of ammonium in some areas in the UK but no change in nitrate. A significant increase in dissolved organic nitrogen in rainfall, throughfall and soil solution has been detected across many sites.

Total Nitrogen Flux Level 2.png

Total Nitrogen deposition flux across the Level 2 plots


Integrated forest monitoring
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Integrated forest monitoring