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Dothistroma literature (M-Z)

Macek, J. (1975). Scirrhia pini, the pathogen of a new disease of Pine in Slovenia. Gozdarski Vestnik, 33, 9-11.

Magnani, G. (1977). Presence of Dothistroma pini on Pinus radiata. Cellulosa e Carta, 28, 37-42.

Mansilla-Vázquez, P., Pérez-Otero, R. & Vela-Fernández, P. (1997). (1997). Hongos de las acículas de pinus spp. en las masas forestales gallegas (218K) (Fungi isolated in needles of Pinus spp in Galicia (Spain)). Proceedings II Spanish National Congress 1997.


Dothistroma septosporum is a pathogen widely distributed (more common in warm areas), causing economic losses and mortality. The most characteristic symptom are (i) red and/or brown banding on the needles (shoots of the present and previous year) and (ii) black fruit bodies. D. septosporum was frequently found on P. radiata, but was not isolated on P. pinaster. Other fungi found on P. radiata associated to D. septosporum were Cyclaneusma minus, Pestalotia funerea, Sphaeropsis sapinea, Meloderma desmazierii and Strasseria geniculata, and, to a lesser extent, Botrytis cinerea, Pestalotia hartigii, Phomopsis occulta, Cytospora spp. and Epicoccum spp.

Marincovic, P. & Strajkovic, B. (1969). Ogledi suzbijanja Dothistroma pini Hulbary u kulturama crnog bora na Deliblatskom Pesku. Deliblatski Pesak Zbornik radova I, 247-252.

Markovic, M., Poljakovic-Pajnik, L., Drekic, M., Pap, P., Vasic, V., & Orlovic, S. (2011). Monitoring of harmful organisms on forest woody plants in parks and treelines in Novi Sad. Biljni Lekar (Plant Doctor), 39, 634-638.

Markovskaja, S. & Treigiene, A. (2009). New data on invasive pathogenic fungus Dothistroma septosporum in Lithuania. Botanica Lithuanica, 15, 41-45.

Marks, G.C. (1981). Newly recorded diseases of Victorian forest trees. Australasian Plant Pathology, 10, 58-59.

Marks, G.C. & Hepworth, G. (1986). Effect of certain features of a stand of Pinus radiata on Dothistroma septospora needle blight. Australian Forest Research, 16, 223-229.

Marks, G.C. & Smith, I.W. (1987). Effect of canopy closure and pruning on Dothistroma septospora needle blight of Pinus radiata D. Don. Australian Forest Research, 17, 145-150.

Marks, G.C., Smith, I.W., & Cook, I.O. (1989). Spread of Dothistroma septospora in plantations of Pinus radiata in Victoria between 1979 and 1988. Australian Forestry, 52, 10-19.

Maschning, E. & Pehl, L. (1994). Threat to native Pinus mugo by Dothistroma. AFZ, Allgemeine Forst Zeitschrift, 49, 249-252.

McDougal, R., Yang, S.Y., Schwelm, A., Stewart, A., & Bradshaw, R. (2011a). A novel GFP-based approach for screening biocontrol microorganisms in vitro against Dothistroma septosporum. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 87, 32-37.

McDougal, R.L., Schwelm, A., & Bradshaw, R.E. (2011b). Dothistromin biosynthesis genes allow inter- and intraspecific differentiation between Dothistroma pine needle blight fungi. Forest Pathology, 41, 407-416.

Milatovic, I (1976). Needle cast of pines caused by Schirrhia pini Funk et Parker and S. acicola (Dearn) Siggers in Yugoslavia. Poljoprivredna znanstvena smotra – Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus Vol 39 (49), 511-513

Milijasevic, T. & Karadzic, D. (2004). Parasitic and saprophytic fungi occurring in connexion with Sphaeropsis sapinea Dyko & Sutton. Glasnik Sumarskog Fakulteta, Univerzitet u Beogradu, 119-128.

Mireku, E. & Simpson, J.A. (2002). Fungal and nematode threats to Australian forests and amenity trees from importation of wood and wood products. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology-Revue Canadienne De Phytopathologie, 24, 117-124.

Morelet, M. (1967). Une maladie des pins, nouvelle pour la France, due à : Scirrhia pini Funk et Parker, et à son stade conidien: Dothistroma pini Hulbary. Bulletin Mensuel de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon, 36, 361-7.

Muir, J.A. & Cobb, F.W. (2005). Infection of radiata and bishop pine by Mycosphaerella pini in California. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere, 35, 2529-2538.

Muller, M.M., Hantula, J., & Vuorinen, M. (2009). First Observations of Mycosphaerella pini on Scots Pine in Finland. Plant Disease, 93, 322-U39.

Murray, J.S. (1967). Dothistroma pini Hulbary – Its occurrence in Europe. In XIV IUFRO-Kongress. Munchen.

Murray, J.S. & Batko, S. (1962). Dothistroma pini Hulbary: A new disease on pine in Britain. Forestry, 34, 57-65.

Muria-Gonzalez, M. J., Chooi, Y. H., Breen, S., & Solomon, P. S. (2015). The past, present and future of secondary metabolite research in the Dothideomycetes. Molecular plant pathology, 16(1), 92-107.

Mutiso, P.M. (1970). Verbreitung und Symptome der durch Dothistroma Pini Hulbary und durch Scleroderris Lagerberg II Gremmen hervorgerufenen Erkrankungen an Pinus-Arten.

Neumann, F.G., Collett, N.G., & Smith, I.W. (1993). The Sirex wasp and its biological control in plantations of radiata pine variably defoliated by Dothistroma septospora in north-eastern Victoria. Australian Forestry, 56, 129-139.

Neumann, F.G. & Marks, G.C. (1990). Status and management of insect pests and diseases in Victorian softwood plantations. Australian Forestry, 53, 131-144.

New, D. (1989). Forest health – an industry perspective of the risks to New Zealand’s plantations. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 19, 155-158.

New Zealand, F.R.I., Rotorua (1977). The wax coating on radiata pine needles. What’s New in Forest Research, 4 pp.-4 pp.

Nicholls, T.H. & Hudler, G.W. (1971). Dothistroma pini on Pinus nigra in Minnesota. Plant Disease Reporter, 55, 1040.

Nicholson, J.H. (1972). Studies on the phylloplane microflora of Pinus radiata D. Don and its interaction with the fungal pathogen Dothistroma pini Hulbary.

Nowakowska, J. A., Tereba, A., & Oszako, T. (2014). Determining invasiveness and risk of dothistroma needle blight. Folia Forestalia Polonica. Series A, Forestry, 56(3), 157-159.

Ohm, R.A., Feau, N., Henrissat, B., Schoch, C.L., Horwitz, B.A., Barry, K.W., Condon, B.J., Copeland, A.C., Dhillon, B., & Glaser, F. (2012). Diverse lifestyles and strategies of plant pathogenesis encoded in the genomes of eighteen Dothideomycetes fungi. PLoS Pathogens, 8, e1003037.

Olsen, P.F. (1971). Dothistroma spraying experience 1966 to 1970. New Zealand Journal of Forestry, 16, 101-104.

Organization, F.a.A. (1975). [Chemical control of forest insect pests and diseases]. 2nd FAO/IUFRO World Technical Consultation on Forest Diseases and Insects, New Delhi, India, 7-12 April 1975.

Organizations, I.U.o.F.R. (1976). Genetic resistance to insects and diseases. Pathology. Congress Group 5. Proceedings, Division II (Forest plants and forest protection), XVI IUFRO World Congress, Oslo, Norway, June 20-July 2, 1976., 310-359.

Osorio, M. & Rack, K. (1980). Interactions between three pine needle fungi in vitro. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 10, 242-252.

Parker, A.K. (1972). Artificial inoculation of Pinus radiata with Scirrhia (Dothistroma) pini: effect of relative humidity and temperature on incubation. Phytopathology, 62.

Parker, A.K. & Collis, D.G. (1966). Dothistroma needle blight of pines in British Columbia. The Forestry Chronicle, 42, 160-161.

Pas, J.B.v.d. (1981). Reduced early growth rates of Pinus radiata caused by Dothistroma pini. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 11, 210-220.

Pas, J.B.v.d., Bulman, L., & Horgan, G.P. (1984a). Disease control by aerial spraying of Dothistroma pini in tended stands of Pinus radiata in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 14, 23-40.

Pas, J.B.v.d., Kimberley, M.O., & Kershaw, D.J. (1984b). Evaluation of the assessment of Dothistroma needle blight in stands of Pinus radiata. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 14, 3-13.

Pehl, L. & Butin, H. (1992). Dothistroma septospora, a new fungus pest on Pinus mugo. AFZ, Allgemeine Forst Zeitschrift, 47, 758-760.

Pehl, L. & Wulf, A. (2001). Mycosphaerella-needle fungi on pines – symptoms, biology and differential diagnosis. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 53, 217-222.

Peterson, G.W. (1949). Dothistroma Needle Blight. Agriculture handbook, 34.

Peterson, G.W. (1967). En: IUFRO Kongress (14: 1967: Munchen). Referate-Papers-Exposes. V. Section 24.

Peterson, G.W. (1973). Infection of Austrian and ponderosa pines by Dothistroma pini in Eastern Nebraska. Phytopathology, 63, 1060-1063.

Peterson, G.W. (1975). Dothistroma needle blight: a problem in production of landscape pines. American Nurseryman, 141, 94-96.

Peterson, G.W. (1976). Some reflections on biological studies of needle diseases. USDA Forest Service Research Note, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 4 pp.-4 pp.

Peterson, G.W. (1981a). Pine and juniper diseases in the Great Plains. General Technical Report, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, ii + 47 pp.-ii + 47 pp.

Peterson, G.W. (1981b). Research in the United States on Dothistroma needle blight of pines. Current research on conifer needle diseases., 25-36.

Peterson, G.W. (1984). Resistance to Dothistroma pini within geographic seed sources of Pinus ponderosa. Phytopathology, 74, 956-960.

Peterson, G.W. & Graham, D.A. (1974). Dothistroma needle blight of Pines. Forest Pest Leaflet, Forest Service, US Department of Agriculture, 5 pp.-5 pp.

Peterson, G.W. & Harvey, G.M. (1976). Dispersal of Scirrhia (Dothistroma) pini conidia and disease development in a shore pine plantation in Western Oregon. Plant Disease Reporter, 60, 761-764.

Peterson, G.W. & Read, R.A. (1971). Resistance to Dothistroma pini within geographic sources of Pinus nigra. Phytopathology, 61.

Peterson, G.W. & Walla, J.A. (1978). Development of Dothistroma pini upon and within needles of Austrian and ponderosa pines in eastern Nebraska. Phytopathology, 68, 1422-1430.

Petkov P. 1993. Dothistroma pini Hulbary on Pinus nigra Arn. in north-east Bulgaria(PDF-3105K). In: Proceeding Conference of “Plant protection”, 24 March 1993, Sofia, pp. 82-85. [in Bulgarian, English summary]

Petkov P. 2000. Sphaeropsis sapinea (Fr.) Dyco et Sutton and Dothistroma pini Hulbary on the Black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) in Bulgaria(PDF-1177), Forest science, 2/3, 105-108. [in Bulgarian, English summary]

Pfister, S.E., Halik, S., & Bergdahl, D.R. (2000). Dothistroma needle blight, caused by Dothistroma septospora, of Pinus spp. in Vermont. Plant Disease, 84, 706-706.

Pintos, C., Mansilla J.P., Berea, B., Abelleira, A., Aguín, O. (2001). Problemática fitopatológica de Pseudotsuga menziesii en Galicia(29K). En: Actas del tercer Congreso Forestal Español, Sociedad Española de Ciencias Forestales, Granada.
(Phytopathology problems of Pseudotsuga menziesii in Galicia.


The objective of this work is to know the phytosanitary status of the main plantations of Pseudotsuga menziensii in Galicia and of the main nurseries producing them. For this purpose we have taken samples of soil, roots and aereal parts and identified in laboratory, insects and fungal pathogens that were present in those samples. The main fungus found in nurseries were fungus of the damping-off complex, basically, Phytophthora cinnamomi and Fusarium spp and in adult plants Armillaria mellea and acicular fungus as Phaerocryptopus gauemanii and Dothistroma septospora. In connection with insects found we can mentionborer insects:Ips sexdentatus, Tomicus piniperda, Orthotomicus erosus, Hylobius abietis and Rhyazonia buoliana, European pine shoot moth, as well as sucker insects as Adelges cooleyi y Heliotrips haemorroidalis.)

Piou, D., & Ioos, R. (2014). First Report of Dothistroma pini, a Recent Agent of the Dothistroma Needle Blight, on Pinus radiata in France. Plant Disease, 98(6), 841-841.

Piškur, B., Hauptman, T., & Jurc, D. (2013). Dothistroma Needle Blight in Slovenia is caused by two cryptic species: Dothistroma pini and Dothistroma septosporum. Forest Pathology, 43(6), 518-521.

Piškur, B., Hauptman, T., Ogris, N., Jurc, D., Trdan, S., & Maček, J. (2013). Pine needle diseases in Slovenia, caused by fungi from the Mycosphaerella genus. In Zbornik Predavanj in Referatov, 11. Slovenskega Posvetovanja o Varstvu Rastlin Z Mednarodno Udeležbo (in okrogle mize o zmanjšanju tveganja zaradi rabe FFS v okviru projekta CropSustaIn), Bled, Slovenia, 5.-6. Marec 2013. (pp. 57-61). Plant Protection Society of Slovenia.
Podger, F.D. (1984). Dothistroma septospora in Tasmania. Australasian Plant Pathology, 13, 65-65.

Poole, A.L. (1966). Needle blight of Pines, a new record. Plant Protection Bulletin, FAO, 14.

Power, A.B. & Dodd, R.S. (1984). Early differential susceptibility of juvenile seedlings and more mature stecklings of Pinus radiata to Dothistroma pini. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 14, 223-228.

Punithalingam, E. & Gibson, I.A.S. (1973). Scirrhia pini. [Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria]. IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria, 368-Sheet 368.

Quaedvlieg, W., Verkley, G. J. M., Shin, H. D., Barreto, R. W., Alfenas, A. C., Swart, W. J., … & Crous, P. W. (2013). Sizing up Septoria. Studies in Mycology, 75, 307-390.

Queloz, V., Wey, T., & Holdenrieder, O. (2014). First Record of Dothistroma pini on Pinus nigra in Switzerland. Plant Disease, 98(12), 1744-1744.

Rack, K. (1986). On the seasonal release of Dothistroma pini conidia in Pinus radiata plantations in southern Chile. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 16, 6-10.

Rack, K. & Butin, H. (1973). A quick method for the production of Dothistroma pini spores in culture. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 3, 201-209.


Ray, J.W. & Vanner, A.L. (1988). Improvements in the technology of Dothistroma control. What’s New in Forest Research, 4 pp.-4 pp.

Reddy, M.A.R., Puri, Y.N., Singh, S., & Pandey, P.C. (1976). Disease situation in Indian forests II. Potentially dangerous foliage diseases. Indian Phytopathology, 28, 41-45.

Reptr, P.I.D. (1969). Plant Diseases. Phytopathology, 59, 53644.

Ridley, G.S. & Dick, M.A. (2001). An introduction to the diseases of forest and amenity trees in New Zealand. Forest Research Bulletin, 220.

Ridout, M., & Newcombe, G. (2015). The frequency of modification of Dothistroma pine needle blight severity by fungi within the native range. Forest Ecology and Management, 337, 153-160.

Rogerson, C.T. (1953). Kansas mycological notes: 1951. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science (1903-), 56, 53-57.

Rossi, V., Candresse, T., Jeger, M. J., Manceau, C., Urek, G., & Stancanelli, G. (2014). Diagnosis of Plant Pathogens and Implications for Plant Quarantine: A Risk Assessment Perspective. In Detection and Diagnostics of Plant Pathogens (pp. 167-193). Springer Netherlands.

Rossnev, B., Petkov, P., & Georgieva, M. (2008) Monitoring on health status of Pinus nigra Arn. plantations in middle and east Stara Planina. Nauka za Gorata, 45, 3-14.

Rossnev B., P. Petkov, М. Georgieva. 2008. Monitoring on the health status of Pinus nigra Arn. in plantations in Middle and East Balkan Range(PDF-488K). Forest science, 2, 3-14. [in Bulgarian, English summary]

Roux, C. (1984). The morphology of Dothistroma septospora on Pinus canariensis from South Africa. South African Journal of Botany, 3, 397-401.

Roux, J. (2011). Michael J. Wingfield, Bernard Slippers. Fifty Years of Invasion Ecology, 89.

Roze, L. V., Hong, S. Y., & Linz, J. E. (2013). Aflatoxin biosynthesis: current frontiers. Annual review of food science and technology, 4, 293-311.

SÁNCHEZ PEÑA, G., TORRES MARTÍNEZ, B., PRIETO GONZÁLEZ, M & MARTINEZ SAAVEDRA, J. (2009) Evolución de la vitalidad de los bosques españoles y en Europa: 1987-2008, más de 20 años del seguimiento de los bosques en Europa (218K). Source: Proceedings V Spanish National Congress 2009.
(Evolution of the vitality of the Spanish and European forests: 1987-2008, over 20 years monitoring in Europe.
European network level I (ICP Forest) was established to monitor the forest health in Europe. The results obtained from this networks point out that within the damages caused by fungi, Thyriopsis halepensis followed by Mycospherella pini are the pathogens most widespread, represented 34 % of the damages caused by fungi.

Schwelm, A., Barron, N.J., Baker, J., Dick, M., Long, P.G., Zhang, S., & Bradshaw, R.E. (2009) Dothistromin toxin is not required for dothistroma needle blight in Pinus radiata. Plant Pathology, 58, 293-304.

Schwelm, A., Barron, N.J., Zhang, S., & Bradshaw, R.E. (2008). Early expression of aflatoxin-like dothistromin genes in the forest pathogen Dothistroma septosporum. Mycological Research, 112, 138-146.

Schwelm, A. & Bradshaw, R.E. (2010). Genetics of Dothistromin Biosynthesis of Dothistroma septosporum: An Update. Toxins, 2, 2680-2698.

Shain, L. & Franich, R.A. (1981). Induction of Dothistroma blight symptoms with dothistromin. Physiological Plant Pathology, 19, 49-55.

Shaw, C.G., III & Toes, E.H.A. (1977). Impact of Dothistroma needle blight and Armillaria root rot on diameter growth of Pinus radiata. Phytopathology, 67, 1319-1323.

Shaw, G.J., Chick, M., & Hodges, R. (1978). A 13C NMR study of the biosynthesis of the anthraquinone dothistromin by Dothistroma pini. Phytochemistry, 17, 1743-1745.

Shea, K.R. (1971) Disease and insect activity in relation to intensive culture of forests. Proceedings of the XV International Union of Forest Research Organizations (1UFRO). USDA Forest Service, US Department of Agriculture, 109-118.

Sheridan, J.E. & Yen, C.C. (1970). A Note On The Effect Of Temperature And relative humidity on the germination of conidia of a New Zealand isolate of Dothistroma pini Hulbary. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 8, 658-660.

Shields, I.J. (1953). Notes on Kansas Fungi 1950-1951. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science (1903-), 56, 58-60.

Shuttleworth, C.M., Lurz, P.W.W., Geddes, N., & Browne, J. (2012). Integrating red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) habitat requirements with the management of pathogenic tree disease in commercial forests in the UK. Forest Ecology and Management, 279, 167-175.

Sievwright, R.A. (1968). The effect of raising the level of some elements in young Pinus radiata on their resistance to Dothistroma pini. Rep. For. Res. Inst. NZ, br, 25.

Simpson, J.A. & Ades, P.K. (1990). Screening Pinus radiata families and clones for disease and insect pest resistance. Australian Forestry, 53, 194-199.

Solheim, H. & Vuorinen, M. (2011). First Report of Mycosphaerella pini Causing Red Band Needle Blight on Scots Pine in Norway. Plant Disease, 95, 875-875.

Stone, C., Chisholm, L.A., & McDonald, S. (2003). Spectral reflectance characteristics of Pinus radiata needles affected by dothistroma needle blight. Canadian Journal of Botany-Revue Canadienne De Botanique, 81, 560-569.

Sturrock, R.N., Frankel, S.J., Brown, A.V., Hennon, P.E., Kliejunas, J.T., Lewis, K.J., Worrall, J.J., & Woods, A.J. (2011). Climate change and forest diseases. Plant Pathology, 60, 133-149.

Sutherland, P.W., Jones, W.T., & Harvey, D. (2003). Sieve element specific labeling with an anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody mimic of the phytotoxin dothistromin. Biotechnic & Histochemistry, 78, 71-74.

Sutton, W.R.J. (1967). Dothistroma pini project. Economics of Control. Rep. For. Res. Insitutc, Forest Service.

Szabo, I. (2002). Fungi causing leaf diseases on forest trees II. Leaf and shoot pathogens of conifer trees. Novenyvedelem, 38, 581-585.

Taylor, J.E. & Schwandt, J.W. (1998). Dothistroma needle blight of limber pine in Montana. Forest Health Protection Report – Northern Region, USDA Forest Service, 7 pp.-7 pp.

Taylor, J.E. & Walla, J.A. (1999). First report of Dothistroma septospora on native limber and whitebark pine in Montana. Plant Disease, 83, 590-590.

Telford, A., Cavers, S., Ennos, R. A., & Cottrell, J. E. (2014). Can we protect forests by harnessing variation in resistance to pests and pathogens?. Forestry, cpu012.

Thomas, J.E. & Lindberg, G.D. (1954). A needle disease of pines caused by Dothistroma pini. Phytopathology, 44, 333.

Thulin, I.J. & Faulds, T. (1968). The use of cuttings in the breeding and afforestation of Pinus radiata. NZJ For, 13, 66-77.

Thyr, B.D. & Shaw, C.G. (1964). Identity of the fungus causing red band disease on pines. Mycologia, 103-109.

Tomšovský, M., Tomešová, V., Palovčíková, D., Kostovčík, M., Rohrer, M., Hanáček, P., & Jankovský, L. (2013). The gene flow and mode of reproduction of Dothistroma septosporum in the Czech Republic. Plant Pathology 62(1): 59-68.

Toro, J. & Gessel, S. (1999). Radiata pine plantations in Chile. New Forests, 18, 33-44.

Tsopelas P., Barnes I., Soulioti N., Wingfield M. J. (2013). Dothistroma septosporum identified in Greece on Pinus brutia and Pinus nigra plantations Plant Disease 97, 1247.

Van der Pas, J.B. (1981). Reduced early growth rates of Pinus radiata caused by Dothistroma pini. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 11, 210-220.

Van Haverbeke, D.F. & Boldt, C.E. (1968). Vigor and density of shelterbelt conifers can be improved. Journal of Forestry, 66, 187-192.

Varga, J., Frisvad, J.C., & Samson, R.A. (2009). A reappraisal of fungi producing aflatoxins. World Mycotoxin Journal, 2, 263-277.

Venette, R. C. (2013) Incorporating climate change into pest risk models for forest pathogens: a role for cold stress in an era of global warming? NeoBiota 18, 131-150.

Wagener, W.W. (1967). Red band needle blight of pines: a tentative appraisal for California Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, US Department of Agriculture.

Walla, J.A. & Peterson, G.W. (1976). Dothistroma pini and Diplodia pinea not affected by surface wax of pine needles. Plant Disease Reporter, 60, 1042-1046.

Wang, J., Wang, D., Wu, C., Ge, Y., Li, P., & Zhang, X. (1998). Effect testing of chemicals for controlling pine needle bright [blight]. Journal of Forestry Research, 9, 288-289.

Wardlaw, T. & Phillips, T. (1990). Nursery diseases and their management at the Forestry Commission nursery, Perth. Tasforests, 2, 21-26.

Watt, M.S., Ganley, R.J., Kriticos, D.J., & Manning, L.K. (2011a). Dothistroma needle blight and pitch canker: the current and future potential distribution of two important diseases of Pinus species. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere, 41, 412-424.

Watt, M.S., Kriticos, D.J., Alcaraz, S., Brown, A.V., & Leriche, A. (2009). The hosts and potential geographic range of Dothistroma needle blight. Forest Ecology and Management, 257, 1505-1519.

Watt, M.S., Palmer, D.J., & Bulman, L.S. (2011b). Predicting the severity of Dothistroma on Pinus radiata under current climate in New Zealand. Forest Ecology and Management, 261, 1792-1798.

Weed, A. S., Ayres, M. P., & Hicke, J. A. (2013). Consequences of climate change for biotic disturbances in North American forests. Ecological Monographs, 83(4), 441-470.

Welsh, C., Lewis, K.J. &  Woods, A.J. (2014) Regional outbreak dynamics of Dothistroma needle blight linked to weather patterns in British Columbia, Canada. Can. J. For. Res. 44: 212–219

Welsh, C., Lewis, K., & Woods, A. (2009). The outbreak history of Dothistroma needle blight: an emerging forest disease in northwestern British Columbia, Canada. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere, 39, 2505-2519.

Whyte, A.G.D. (1968). Tree growth in the presence of Dothistroma pini. Report. Forest Research Institute, New Zealand Forest Service, Wellington, NZ, 51-52.

Whyte, A.G.D. (1976). Spraying pine plantations with fungicides – the manager’s dilemma. Forest Ecology and Management, 1, 7-19.

Wijayawardene, N. N., Crous, P. W., Kirk, P. M., Hawksworth, D. L., Boonmee, S., Braun, U., … & Cai, L. (2014). Naming and outline of Dothideomycetes–2014 including proposals for the protection or suppression of generic names. Fungal Diversity, 69(1), 1-55.

Wilcox, M.D. (1982). Genetic variation and inheritance of resistance to Dothistroma needle blight in Pinus radiata. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 12, 14-35.

Wilcox, M.D. & Miller, J.T. (1976). Pinus nigra provenance variation and selection in New Zealand. Silvae Genetica, 24, 132-140.

Woods, A. J. (2014). Warmer and wetter might not be better–Short review. Journal of Forest Science, 60(11), 484-486.

Woods, A., Coates, K.D., & Hamann, A. (2005). Is an unprecedented dothistroma needle blight epidemic related to climate change? Bioscience, 55, 761-769.

Woods, A.J. (2003). Species diversity and forest health in northwest British Columbia. Forestry Chronicle, 79, 892-897.

Woodward, R.A. & Ontiveros, J. (1983). Observations of a thirty-one-year-old radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantation in northern California (Frazier plantation – Jackson Demonstration State Forest). California Forestry Note, 8 pp.-8 pp.

Woollons, R.C. & Hayward, W.J. (1984). Growth losses in Pinus radiata stands unsprayed for Dothistroma pini. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 14, 14-22.

Yeh, Y. H. F., Chung, W. C., Liao, J. Y., Chung, C. L., Kuo, Y. F., & Lin, T. T. (2013, March). A comparison of machine learning methods on hyperspectral plant disease assessments. In Bio-Robotics (Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 361-365).

Zakaullah, Jehan, A., & Abdul, J. (1987). New hosts of some parasitic fungi from N.W.F.P., northern areas and Azad Kashmir. Pakistan Journal of Forestry, 37, 135-139.

Zhang, S.G., Schwelin, A., Jin, H.P., Collins, L.J., & Bradshaw, R.E. (2007). A fragmented aflatoxin-like gene cluster in the forest pathogen Dothistroma septosporum. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 44, 1342-1354.

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Forest Research