Skip to main content
Contact Us

Dothistroma literature (G-L)

Home Publications Dothistroma literature (G-L)

Gadgil, P.D. (1967). Infection of Pinus radiata needles by Dothistroma pini. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 5, 498-503.

Gadgil, P.D. (1970). Survival of Dothistroma pini on fallen needles of Pinus radiata. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 8, 303-309.

Gadgil, P.D. (1974). Effect of temperature and leaf wetness period on infection of Pinus radiata by Dothistroma pini. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 4, 495-501.

Gadgil, P.D. (1977). Duration of leaf wetness periods and infection of Pinus radiata by Dothistroma pini. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 7, 83-90.

Gadgil, P.D. (1984). Dothistroma needle blight. Forest Pathology in New Zealand, Forest Research Institute, New Zealand, 8 pp.-8 pp.

Gadgil, P.D. & Holden, G. (1976). Effect of light intensity on infection of Pinus radiata by Dothistroma pini. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 6, 67-71.

Gallagher, R. & Hodges, R. (1972) .The Chemistry of Dothistromin, a Difuronanthraquinone From Dothistroma pini. Australian Journal of Chemistry, 25, 2399-2407.

Gallagher, R.T. (1971). The structure of dothistromin: a thesis presented to Massey University in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Massey University, July 1971.

Ganley, R.J. & Bradshaw, R.E. (2001). Rapid identification of polymorphic microsatellite loci in a forest pathogen, Dothistroma pini, using anchored PCR. Mycological Research, 105, 1075-1078.

Gapare, W. J. (2014). Merging applied gene conservation activities with advanced generation breeding initiatives: a case study of Pinus radiata D. Don. New forests, 45(3), 311-331.

Garcia, J. & Kummerow, J. (1970). Infection of Monterey Pine graftings with Dothistroma pini. Plant Disease Reporter, 54, 403-404.

Gardner, D.E. & Hodges, C.S. (1988). Hawaiian forest fungi. IX. Botryosphaeria pipturi sp. nov. and miscellaneous records. Mycologia, 80, 460-465.

Garrido, N., Becerra, J., Marticorena, C., Oehrens, E., Silva, M., & Horak, E. (1982). Antibiotic properties of ectomycorrhizae and saprophytic fungi growing on Pinus radiata D. Don I. Mycopathologia, 77, 93-98.

Gautam, H. R., Bhardwaj, M. L., & Kumar, R. (2013). Climate change and its impact on plant diseases. Curr. Sci, 105, 1685-1691.

Gerding, V., Geldres, E., & Moya, J.A. (2006). Diagnosis for the development of Pinus massoniana and Pinus brutia established in the arboretum at Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia. Bosque, 27, 57-63.

Ghini, R., Hamada, E., Angelotti, F., Costa, L.B., & Bettiol, W. (2012). Research approaches, adaptation strategies, and knowledge gaps concerning the impacts of climate change on plant diseases. Tropical Plant Pathology, 37, 5-24.

Gibson, I., Christensen, P.S., & Munga, F.M. (1964). First observations in Kenya of a foliage disease of pines caused by Dothistroma pini Hulbary. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 43, 31-48.

Gibson, I. & Howland, A.K. (1970) The action of copper fungicides in the control of Dothistroma blight of Pines. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal, 36, 139-53.

Gibson, I.A.S. (1967). The distribution, impact and control of a foliage disease of Pines in Africa caused by Dothistroma pini Hulbary. In Proceedings off the 14th IUFRO Congress, Munich, Germany: 209, Vol. 220, pp. 84-88.

Gibson, I.A.S. (1972). Dothistroma blight of Pinus radiata. Annual review of Phytopathology, 10, 51-72.

Gibson, I.A.S. (1973). Fungicidal control of Dothistroma blight of Pinus radiata. Pans, 19, 342-344.

Gibson, I.A.S. (1974). Impact and control of dothistroma blight of pines. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 4, 89-100.

Gibson, I.A.S. (1980). Two pine needle fungi new to Columbia. Tropical Pest Management, 26, 38-40.

Gibson, I.A.S., Christensen, P.S., & Dedan, J.K. (1967). Further observations in Kenya on a foliage disease of pines caused by Dothistroma pini Hulbary. The effect of shade on the incidence of disease in Pinus radiata. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 46, 129.

Gibson, I.A.S., Rowland, A., & Munga, F.M. (1970). The action of copper fungicides in the control of Dothistroma blight of Pines-a pilot study. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal, 36, 119-123.

Gilmour, J.W. (1967a). Distribution, impact and control of Dothistroma pini in New Zealand. Rotorua, New Zealand: New Zealand Forest Service. Reprint.

Gilmour, J.W. (1967b). Host list for Dothistroma pini in New Zealand. Forest Research Institute, Research Leaflet.

Gilmour, J.W. (1969). Dothistroma pini project-chemical control in young P. radiata stands, photogrammetrics measurement of green crown depth, defoliation assessment methods. For. Res. Inst. NZ For. Serv, 55-57.

Gilmour, J.W. (1981). The effect of season on infection of Pinus radiata by Dothistroma pini. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 11, 265-269.

Gilmour, J.W. & Crockett, F. (1973). Dothistroma pini project : ] monitoring of infection patterns in the field. Report of Forest Research Institute for 1972, New Zealand Forest Service., 53-53.

Gilmour, J.W. & Noorderhaven, A. (1971). Influence of time of application of cuprous oxide on control of Dothistroma needle blight. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 1, 160-166.

Gilmour, J.W. & Noorderhaven, A. (1973). Control of Dothistroma needle blight by low volume aerial application of copper fungicides. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 3, 120-136.

Gilmour, J.W. & Vanner, A.L. (1971). Radiata Pine. Pine needle blight (Dothistroma pini). Fungicide and Nematacide tests “Results of 1971”. Am. Phytopath. Soc, 27, 137-138.

Gilmour, J.W. & Vanner, A.L. (1972). Radiata pine needle blight (Dothistroma pini). Fungicide and Nematacide Tests: “Results of 1972”. Am. Phytopath. Soc, 28, 129.

Gilmour, J.W. & Vanner, A.L. (1973). Radiata Pine (Pinus radiata). Pine needle blight; Dothistroma pini. New Zealand Forest Service Reprint, 1 pp.-1 pp.

Goodwin, S.B., Dunkle, L.D., & Zismann, V.L. (2001). Phylogenetic analysis of Cercospora and Mycosphaerella based on the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA. Phytopathology, 91, 648-658.

Gous, S. & Richardson, B. (2006). Optimising spray application efficiency for Dothistroma control – characterisation of spray formulation properties. Ensis report number 1193.

Gous, S., Richardson, B., & Kimberley, M. (2007). Optimising spray application efficiency for Dothistroma control – persistence of different formulations. Ensis report number 12217.

Gremmen, J. (1968). The presence of Scirrhia pini Funk et Parker in Romania (Conidial stage: Dothistroma pini Hulb.). Bulletin Trimestiel de la Société Mycologique de France, 84, 489-492.

Griffin, B. (2014) Dothistroma needle blight strategy. Forestry Commission Scotland (internal paper only).

Groenewald, M. (2007). Molecular characterization of Cercospora beticola and its relatives. In Molecular characterization of Cercospora beticola and its relatives, pp. 182 pp.-182 pp.

Groenewald, M., Barnes, I., Bradshaw, R.E., Brown, A.V., Dale, A., Groenewald, J.Z., Lewis, K.J., Wingfield, B.D., Wingfield, M.J., & Crous, P.W. (2007). Characterization and distribution of mating type genes in the Dothistroma needle blight pathogens. Phytopathology, 97, 825-834.

Hanso, M., & Drenkhan, R. (2013). Simple visualization of climate change for improving the public perception in forest pathology/Kliimamuutuste visualiseerimise lihtne viis seoste paremaks tajumiseks metsapatoloogias. Forestry Studies, 58(1), 37-45.

Hanso, M. & Drenkhan, R. (2008). First observations of Mycosphaerella pini in Estonia. Plant Pathology, 57, 1177-1177.

Harris, J.M. & McConchie, D.L. (1978). Wood properties of Pinus radiata infected with Dothistroma pini. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 8, 410-416.

Haruta, O., Fodor, E., & Teusdea, A. (2007). Complex diseases in Pinus nigra Arnold situated along Crisul Repede River Gorge. Analele Institutul de Cercetari si Amenajari Silvice, 50, 169-184.

Henry, K.M. & Townsend, C.A. (2005). Ordering the reductive and cytochrome P450 oxidative steps in demethylsterigmatocystin formation yields general insights into the biosynthesis of aflatoxin and related fungal metabolites. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 127, 3724-3733.

Hirst, P., Richardson, T.E., Carson, S.D., & Bradshaw, R.E. (2000). Dothistroma pini genetic diversity is low in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 29, 459-472.

Hyde, K. D., Jones, E. G., Liu, J. K., Ariyawansa, H., Boehm, E., Boonmee, S., … & Li, X. H. (2013). Families of dothideomycetes. Fungal Diversity, 63(1), 1-313.

Hocking, D. (1967). Dothistroma needle blight of pines. Annals of Applied Biology, 59, 363-373.

Hotter, G.S. (1997). Elicitor-induced oxidative burst and phenylpropanoid metabolism in Pinus radiata cell suspension cultures. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 24, 797-804.

Hulbary, R.L. (1941). A needle blight of Austrian Pine. III. nat. Hist. Surv. Bull., 21, 231-6.

Ioos, R., Fabre, B., Saurat, C., Fourrier, C., Frey, P., & Marcais, B. (2010). Development, Comparison, and Validation of Real-Time and Conventional PCR Tools for the Detection of the Fungal Pathogens Causing Brown Spot and Red Band Needle Blights of Pine. Phytopathology, 100, 105-114.

Ito, K., Zinno, Y., & Suto, Y. (1975). Dothistroma needle blight of pines in Japan. Bulletin of the Government Forest Experiment Station.

Iturritxa, E., Mesanza, N., & Brenning, A. (2014). Spatial analysis of the risk of major forest diseases in Monterey pine plantations. Plant Pathology.

Ivkovic, M., Baltunis, B., Gapare, W., Sasse, J., Dutkowski, G., Elms, S., & Wu, H. (2010a). Breeding against dothistroma needle blight of radiata pine in Australia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere, 40, 1653-1660.

Ivkovic, M., Gapare, W.J., Wharton, T., Jovanovic, T., Elms, S., McRae, T.A., & Wu, H.X. (2010b). Risks affecting breeding objectives for radiata pine in Australia. Australian Forestry, 73, 265-278.

Ivory, M.H. (1967a) .A new variety of Dothistroma pini in Kenya. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 50, 289-IN4.

Ivory, M.H. (1967b). Spore germination and growth in culture of Dothistroma pini var. Keniensis. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 50, 563-572.

Ivory, M.H. (1968). Reaction of Pines in Kenya to Attack by Dothistroma pini var keniensis. E. Afr. Agr. Forest. I, 33, 236-44.

Ivory, M.H. (1972a). Infection of Pinus radiata foliage by Scirrhia pini. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 59, 365-375.

Ivory, M.H. (1972b). Resistance to dothistroma needle blight induced in Pinus radiata by maturity and shade. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 59, 205-212.

Ivory, M.H. (1990). Needle diseases of pines in Nepal. Banko Janakari, 2, 209-212.

Ivory, M.H. (1994). Records of foliage pathogens of Pinus species in tropical countries. Plant Pathology, 43, 511-518.

Ivory, M.H. & Paterson, D.N. (1970). Progress in breeding Pinus radiata resistant to Dothistroma needle blight in East Africa. Silvae Genetica, 19, 38-42.

Jackson, M. & Lockman, B. (2003). Update on limber pine decline and mortality on the Lewis and Clark National Forest, Montana. Forest Health Protection Report – Northern Region, USDA Forest Service, 8 pp.-8 pp.

Jalaluddin, M. (1984). Needle blight of Pinus radiata in Uganda. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 63, 297-298.

James, R.N., Tustin, J.R., & Sutton, W.R.J. (1970). Forest Research Institute symposium on pruning and thinning New Zealand Forest Service.

Jancarik, V. (1969). Control of Dothistroma pini in forest nurseries Forest Research Institute.

Jancarik, V. (1970a). Control of Dothistroma pini in forest nurseries. Farm. For., 12, 112-9.

Jancarik, V. (1970b). Evaluation of Dothistroma pini infection in forest nurseries. Research leaflet/Forest research institute. New Zealand forest service.

Jankovsky, L., Bednarova, M., & Palovcikova, D. (2004a). Dothistroma needle blight Mycosphaerella pini E. Rostrup, a new quarantine pathogen of pines in the CR. Journal of Forest Science, 50, 319-326.

Jankovsky, L., Palovcikova, D., & Bednarova, M. (2004b). Picea pungens Engelm. – a new host of Dothistroma needle blight Mycosphaerella pini E. Rostrup detected in the Czech Republic. Journal of Forest Science, 50, 235-236.

Jankovsky, L., Palovcikova, D., & Dvorak, M. (2008). Alien diseases of woody plants in the Czech Republic. Forstschutz Aktuell, 32-34.

Jankovsky, L., Palovcikova, D., Dvorak, M., & Tomsovsky, M. (2009). Records of brown spot needle blight related to Lecanosticta acicola in the Czech Republic. Plant Protection Science, 45, 16-18.

Jayawickrama, K.J.S. & Carson, M.J. (2000). A breeding strategy for the New Zealand Radiata Pine Breeding Cooperative. Silvae Genetica, 49, 82-90.

Johnson, I.G. (1989). The breeding strategy for radiata pine in New South Wales. Part II – proposed operations. In Technical Paper – Forestry Commission of NSW, pp. i + 58 pp.-i + 58 pp.

Jones, W.T., Harvey, D., Jones, S.D., Sutherland, P.W., Nicol, M.J., Sergejew, N., Debnam, P.M., Cranshaw, N., & Reynolds, P.H.S. (1995). Interaction between the phytotoxin dothistromin and Pinus radiata embryos. Phytopathology, 85, 1099-1104.

Jones, W.T., Harvey, D., Sutherland, P.W., & Reynolds, P.H.S. (1998). Production of anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies that mimic the phytotoxin dothistromin. Food and Agricultural Immunology, 10, 67-78.

Janoušek, J., Krumböck, S., Kirisits, T., Bradshaw, R. E., Barnes, I., Jankovský, L., & Stauffer, C. (2014). Development of microsatellite and mating type markers for the pine needle pathogen Lecanosticta acicola. Australasian Plant Pathology, 43(2), 161-165.

Kabir, M. S. (2014). Investigation of dothistroma needle blight development on Pinus radiata: a thesis presented in the partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Microbiology and Genetics at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand (Doctoral dissertation, The author).

Kabir, M. S., Ganley, R. J., & Bradshaw, R. E. (2014). The hemibiotrophic lifestyle of the fungal pine pathogen Dothistroma septosporum. Forest Pathology.

Kabir, M. S., Ganley, R. J., & Bradshaw, R. E. (2014). Dothistromin toxin is a virulence factor in dothistroma needle blight of pines. Plant Pathology.

Kabir, M.S., Ganley, R.J. and Bradshaw, R.E. (2013) An improved artificial pathogenicity assay for Dothistroma needle blight on Pinus radiata. Australasian Plant Pathology, 42: 503-510. DOI 10.1007/s13313-013-0217-z

Kailidis DS & Markalas S (1981). The Fungus Dothistroma Pini and the Lichen Evernia Prunastri on Pinus Brutia at the “Valley of Death.” (PDF-118K)(original): ΔΑΣΙΚΑ ΧΡΟΝΙΚΑ (as translated in English): Forest Chronicles 24:(7-8), pp257-259.

Karadzic, D. (1983). Needle diseases of black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.). Zastita Bilja, 34, 329-342.

Karadzic, D. (1987). Effectiveness of some fungicides in the control of Dothistroma pini Hulbary in Pinus nigra plantations. Zastita Bilja, 38, 15-31.

Karadzic, D. (1988). Dothistroma septospora: distribution, hosts and importance. Glasnik Sumarskog Fakulteta, Univerzitet u Beogradu, 133-144.

Karadzic, D. (1989). Mechanism of infection of some fungi on Austrian and Scots pine needles. Zastita Bilja, 40, 35-46.

Karadzic, D. & Milijasevic, T. (2008). Тhe most important parasitic and saprophytic fungi in Austrian pine and scots pine plantations in Serbia. Bulletin of the Faculty of Forestry, 97, 147-170.

Karadzic, D.M. (1994). Picea omorika – a new host of Dothistroma septospora. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 24, 300-303.

Kennedy, S. G., Yanchuk, A. D., & Jefferson, P. A. (2013). Relationship of heartwood traits with diameter growth, implications for genetic selection in Pinus radiata. Tree Genetics & Genomes, 9(5), 1313-1319.

Kershaw, D.J., Gadgil, P.D., Leggat, G.J., Ray, J.W., & Pas, J.B.v.d. (1982). Assessment and control of Dothistroma needle blight. Revised edition. FRI Bulletin, Forest Research Institute, New Zealand, 45 pp.-45 pp.

Kershaw, D.J., Gadgil, P.D., Ray, J.W., Van der Pas, J.B., & Blair, R.G. (1988). Assessment and control of Dothistroma needle blight (Second revised edition). FRI Bulletin, Forest Research Institute, New Zealand, 18, 38.

Kirisits, T. & Cech, T.L. (2006). Does Dothistroma needle blight develop into a forest health problem in Austria? Forstschutz Aktuell, 20-26.

Kirisits, T. & Cech, T.L. (2007). Remarkable occurrence of Dothistroma needle blight on Swiss stone pine trees in the upper Mur valley. Forstschutz Aktuell, 13-15.

Koltay, A. (1997). New pathogens in Hungarian black pine stands. Novenyvedelem, 33, 339-341.

Koltay, A. (2001a). Incidence of Dothistroma septospora (Dorog.) Morlet in the Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) stands in Hungary and results of chemical control trials. Novenyvedelem, 37, 231-235.

Koltay, A. (2001b). Review of Austrian pine disease caused by shoot blight in Hungary. Erdeszeti Kutatasok, 90, 247-254.

Koltay, A. (2007). Susceptibility of different clone groups of Austrian pine to Mycosphaerella pini E. Rostrup and Sphaeropsis sapinea Dyko & Sutton. Acta Silvatica & Lignaria Hungarica, Special, 47-51.

Koltay, A. & Nagy, L. (1999). Susceptibility of different clones of Austrian pine to infection of Sphaeropsis sapinea and Dothistroma septospora. Erdeszeti Kutatasok, 89, 151-161.

Kovaćevski, J. C., 1938: Parasitic fungi new for Bulgaria – Fifth contribution. Rev. Inst. Rech. Agron. Bulg. 8, 3–13.

Kowalski, T. & Drozynska, K. (2011). Mycobiota in Needles and Shoots of Pinus nigra following Infection by Dothistroma septosporum. Phyton-Annales Rei Botanicae, 51, 277-287.

Kowalski, T. & Jankowiak, R. (1998). First record of Dothistroma septospora (Dorog.) Morelet in Poland: a contribution to the symptomatology and epidemiology. Phytopathologia Polonica, 15-29.

Kowalski, T., Wysocka, G., & Stepien, T. (1998). Epidemic infection of Pinus nigra Arn. by Dothistroma septospora (Dorog.) Morelet in seed plantation in Miechow Forest District (South Poland). Acta Agraria et Silvestria. Series Silvestris, 36, 31-48.

Kraj, W., & Kowalski, T. (2013). Microspatial genetic diversity of Dothistroma septosporum. Forest Pathology, 43(1), 42-50.

Lambert, M.J. (1986). Sulphur and nitrogen nutrition and their interactive effects on Dothistroma infection in Pinus radiata. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 16, 1055-1062.

Lang, K.J. (1987). Dothistroma pini on young Norway spruce (Picea abies). European Journal of Forest Pathology, 17, 316-317.

Lang, K.J. & Karadzic, D. (1987). Is Dothistroma pini a danger to Pinus sylvestris? Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt, 106, 45-50.

Langrell, S.R.H. (2011). Nested polymerase chain reaction-based detection of Dothistroma septosporum, red band needle blight of pine, a tool in support of phytosanitary regimes. Molecular Ecology Resources, 11, 749-752.

La Porta N., Capretti P., Thomsen I.M., Kasanen R., Hietala A.M., Von Weissenberg K., 2008. Forest pathogens with higher damage potential due to climate change in Europe. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 30 (2): 177-195.

La Porta N., Capretti P.,  2000. Mycosphaerella dearnessii Barr. a needle-cast pathogen on mountain pine (Pinus mugo) in Italy. Plant Disease 84: 8, 922. 

Lasca, C.d.C., Figueiredo, M.B., & Namekata, T. (1974). Dothistroma pini var. pini on Pinus pinaster in Sao Paulo State. Biologico, 40, 267-270.

Lazarev, V., Karadzic, D., Markovic, M., Pap, P., & Poljakovic-Pajnik, L. (2007). The most frequent Lophodermium spp. on Scots pine and Austrian pine and their role in the appearance of other fungi on the needles. Acta Silvatica & Lignaria Hungarica, Special, 53-59.

Li, P., Zhang, X., Hui, E., Liu, Z., Ge, Y., Wang, J., Wang, D., & Wu, C. (1998). Spatial distribution of needle bright [blight] disease of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica. Journal of Forestry Research, 9, 264-268.

Lilja, A., Rytkonen, A., Hantula, J., Muller, M., Parikka, P., & Kurkela, T. (2011). Introduced pathogens found on ornamentals, strawberry and trees in Finland over the past 20 years. Agricultural and Food Science, 20, 74-85.

Lindberg, G.D. (1952). A needle blight of ornamental pines caused by Dothistroma pini, Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College.

Ling, L., Chiarappa, L., Capoor, S.P., Nariani, T.K., & Cortez, R.E. (1962). Collaborative Pesticides Analytical Committee Outbreaks and new records India, Italy, United States Plant quarantine announcements Canada, Netherlands. FAO plant protection bulletin, 10, 32.

López, N., Oleas, A. & Vásconez, M. (1986).  Alternativas de control de la quemazón de las acículas de Pinus radiata ocasionada por Dothistroma septospora (Doroq) Morelet (3481K). Sanidad Forestal Vol 1, no 1, 16-30
(Alternatives for the control of needle burning in Pinus radiata caused by Dothistroma septospora (Doroq) Morelet)


An outbreak of DNB took place in 1982 in Ecuador as result of environmental conditions and the susceptibility of P. radiata seedlings in the early years. They suggested controlling the disease using silvicultural treatments, such as pruning and removing understory, DNB-resistance provenances, mixed forests and finally chemical control. Random blocks with 16 treatments and 4 replicates were carried out. Copper fungicides minimized the damage caused by DNB and the highest severity was associated to rainfall periods, which together with constant mean temperatures will favor to the disease. Cupric hydroxide and copper oxychloride are the most efficient fungicides, followed by Benomyl, methyl thiophanate and tryphenil acetate. On the other hand, bitertanol and control treatments showed the highest damages. Pruning didn’t minimize the damages, probably due to the low density of these forests. Negative effects on height, diameter or volume were not found, but it could be because of the short period of this survey. Further studies should be carried out to elucidate whether fungicide treatment is worthwhile.)

Lorenz, R.W. (1970). The growth of Ponderosa Pine in Illinois limited by the needle blight. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science, 63, 401-8.

Lundquist, J.E. & Roux, C. (1984). Dothistroma needle blight of Pinus patula, P. radiata, and P. canariensis in South Africa. Plant Disease, 68, 918-918.

Publication type