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Dothistroma literature (A-C)

Home Publications Dothistroma literature (A-C)

Ades, P.K. & Simpson, J.A. (1990). Clonal selection for resistance to Dothistroma needle blight in Pinus radiata. New Forests, 4, 27-35.

Ades, P.K. & Simpson, J.A. (1991). Variation in susceptibility to Dothistroma needle blight among provenances of Pinus radiata var. radiata. Silvae Genetica, 40, 6-13.

Ades, P.K., Simpson, J.A., & Eldridge, K.G. (1992). Genetic variation in susceptibility of Dothistroma needle blight among provenances and families of Pinus muricata. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 22, 1111-1117.

Aguín O, Pintos C, Sabaris M, Abelleira A, Mansilla JP. 2001. Identificación de Dothistroma septospora mediante la técnica PCR. En: Actas del tercer Congreso Forestal Español, Sociedad Española de Ciencias Forestales, Granada,  3CFE04-063-T4, p. 402-407 
(Identification of Dothistroma septospora through PCR technique.


The fungal species causing the disease known as red band needle blight has been identified by the PCR technique. Infected plant material consisted of needles from Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata, Pinus sp. and Pseudotsuga sp. PCR amplification of the ITS region between the fungal nuclear 18S and 5.8S genes was carried out using primers ITS2 and ITS5. Amplification products were obtained following electrophoresis on agarose and staining with ethidium bromide, being visualized under UV light. Samples with Dothistroma septosporai presented a DNA band of an approximate size of 250 base pairs.)

Allen, J.D. (1973). Pests and diseases of Radiata Pine. Some observations made during a visit to Australia, South Africa, Kenya, Spain and Chile. New Zealand Journal of Forestry, 18, 265-272.

Almida, A. (1970). Dothistroma pini on Pines in the State of Parana. Floresta, 2, 21-3.

Alonso, O., Peredo, H., Barria, R., & Chacon, S. (1985). A laboratory method to evaluate the effectiveness of fungicides against pathogenic forest fungi. Boletin Micologico, 2, 119-124.

Alzamora, R.M., Hauer, P., & Peredo, H. (2004). Evaluation of commercial volume losses to Pinus radiata caused by Dothistroma septospora under varying forest management and chemical control conditions in the province of Valdivia. Bosque, 25, 15-27.

Ana Magan, F.J.F. (1975). Red band disease of Pinus radiata. Comunicaciones I.N.I.A., Proteccion Vegetal, 16 pp.-16 pp.

Andras, K., Jozsef, T., Laszlo, K., & Tibor, S. (2009). Chemical control of pathogens Dothistroma septospora (Dorog.) Morlet and Sphaeropsis sapinea Dyko & Sutton in young European black pine (Pinus nigra) stands. Novenyvedelem, 45, 225-230.

Anon 2013 DOTHISTROMA NEEDLE BLIGHT ACTION PLAN – SCOTLAND (2013/14). DNB Action Plan for Scotland Forestry Commission Scotland

Anon 2013 Planting in native pinewoods: reducing risks from Dothistroma Needle Blight. Forestry Commission Scotland

Anon 2013 Dothistroma needle blight Field Guide. Forest Research, UK

Anon 2015 Dothistroma need blight Field Guide (Lithuanian translation). Forest Research, UK 

Anon 2012. Outline guidance on Dothistroma needle blight (DNB) resilience action plans for forest tree nurseries in Scotland. Forestry Commission Scotland.

Anonymous (1973). Report of Forest Research Institute for 1972, New Zealand Forest Service. Report of Forest Research Institute for 1972, New Zealand Forest Service., 107 pp.-107 pp.

Anonymous (1976). Report of Forest Research Institute for 1975, New Zealand Forest Service. Report of Forest Research Institute for 1975, New Zealand Forest Service., 116 pp.-116 pp.

Anonymous (1977). 31st Biennial Report, 1 July, 1974-30 June, 1976, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. 31st Biennial Report, 1 July, 1974-30 June, 1976, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services., 176 pp.-176 pp.

Anonymous (1978). Report of Forest Research Institute for 1977, New Zealand Forest Service. Report of Forest Research Institute for 1977, New Zealand Forest Service., 112 pp.-112 pp.

Anonymous (1980). Report of Forest Research Institute for 1979, New Zealand Forest Service. Report of Forest Research Institute for 1979, New Zealand Forest Service., 120 pp.-120 pp.

Anonymous (1981). Report of Forest Research Institute for 1980, New Zealand Forest Service. Report of Forest Research Institute for 1980, New Zealand Forest Service., 120 pp.-120 pp.

Anonymous (2011). Forestry Statistics 2011 A compendium of statistica about woodland, forestry and primary wood processing in the United Kindom. Forestry Commission.

Archibald, S. & Brown, A. (2007a). The relationship between climate and the incidence of red band needle blight in the East Anglia Forest District, Britain. In Workshop of the IUFRO Working party, Vol. 7.

Archibald, S. & Brown, A.V. (2007b). The relationship between climate and the incidence of red band needle blight in the East Anglia Forest District, Britain. Workshop of the IUFRO Working party 7.02.02. “Foliage, shoot and stem diseases of forest trees”, 21-24 May 2007, Sopron, Hungary.

Bakshi, B.K. & Singh, S. (1968). Dothistroma blight-a potential threat to Pinus radiata plantations in India. Indian Forester, 94, 824-825.

Bannister, M.H. & Burdon, R.D. (1973). Genetic survey of Radiata Pine. Report of Forest Research Institute for 1972, New Zealand Forest Service., 23-23.

Barnes, I., Walla, J. A., Bergdahl, A., & Wingfield, M. J. (2014). Four New Host and Three New State Records of Dothistroma Needle Blight Caused by Dothistroma pini in the United States. Plant Disease, 98(10), 1443-1443.

Barnes, I., Wingfield, M. J., Carbone, I., Kirisits, T., & Wingfield, B. D. (2014). Population structure and diversity of an invasive pine needle pathogen reflects anthropogenic activity. Ecology and evolution, 4(18), 3642-3661.

Barnes, I., Cortinas, M.N., Wingfield, M.J., & Wingfield, B.D. (2008a). Microsatellite markers for the red band needle blight pathogen, Dothistroma septosporum. Molecular Ecology Resources, 8, 1026-1029.

Barnes, I., Crous, P.W., Wingfield, B.D., & Wingfield, M.J. (2004). Multigene phylogenies reveal that red band needle blight of Pinus is caused by two distinct species of Dothistroma, D-septosporum and D-pini. Studies in Mycology, 551-565.

Barnes, I., Kirisits, T., Akulov, A., Chhetri, D.B., Wingfield, B.D., Bulgakov, T.S., & Wingfield, M.J. (2008b). New host and country records of the Dothistroma needle blight pathogens from Europe and Asia. Forest Pathology, 38, 178-195.

Barnes, I., Kirisits, T., Wingfield, M.J., & Wingfield, B.D. (2011). Needle blight of pine caused by two species of Dothistroma in Hungary. Forest Pathology, 41, 361-369.

Barnes, R.D. (1970). The prospects for re-establishing Pinus radiata as a commercially important species in Rhodesia. South African Forestry Journal, 72, 17-19.

Barr, M.E. (1996). Planistromellaceae, a new family in the Dothideales. Mycotaxon, 60, 433-442.

Bassett, C. (1969). Larix decidua a new host for Dothistroma pini. Plant Disease Reporter, 53, 706.

Bassett, C. (1970). Forest Pathology. Rep. Forest Res. Inst. NZ 1969, 51-57.

Bassett, C. & Buchanan, M. (1970). A toxic difuroanthraquinone from Dothistroma pini. Chemistry and Industry, 1659-60.

Bates, G.R. (1962) Botany, plant pathology and Ses Services. Rept. Minist. Agr.Rhodesia, 46-55.

Batt, R.O., Andrew, F.G., & Brunt, P.J. (1969). Characterisation of extra-cellular enzymes from Dothistroma pini. Rep. For. Res. Inst. NZ Forestry service, Wellington (19).

Bednarova, M., Bodejckova, I., Palovcikova, D., & Jankovsky, L. (2007) The contemporary situation of dothistroma needle blight outbreak in the Czech Republic. Acta Silvatica & Lignaria Hungarica, Special, 17-21.

Bednarova, M., Palovcikova, D., & Jankovsky, L. (2006). The host spectrum of Dothistroma needle blight Mycosphaerella pini E. Rostrup – new hosts of Dothistroma needle blight observed in the Czech Republic. Journal of Forest Science, 52, 30-36.

Bettucci, L. & Guerrero, R.T. (1970). Red-band disease of Pine. Bol. Dep. For. Uruguay.

Bihon, W., Wingfield, M. J., Slippers, B., Duong, T. A., & Wingfield, B. D. (2014). MAT gene idiomorphs suggest a heterothallic sexual cycle in a predominantly asexual and important pine pathogen. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 62, 55-61.

Bingham, R.T., Hoff, R.J., & McDonald, G.I. (1971). Disease resistance in forest trees. Annual review of Phytopathology, 9, 433-452.

Bingzhang, H., Xinglin, D., Chengyu, L., Guiqin, L., Yuping, Y., Fan, W., & Shuwen, L. (1992) The development pattern of Dothistroma needle blight and its control. J. Northeast For. Univ, 3, 48-53.

Björn, L. O. (2015). Light-Promoted Infection. In Photobiology (pp. 395-398). Springer New York.

Blaschke, M. & Nannig, A. (2007). Red band disease of pine repeatedly occurring on spruce. Forstschutz Aktuell, 16-17.

Boateng, K., & Lewis, K. J. (2015). Spore dispersal by Dothistroma septosporum in northwest British Columbia. Phytopathology, 105(1), 69-79.

Boateng, K. (2011). Spore dispersal and infection of lodgepole pine by Dothistroma septosporum in northwest British Columbia, University of Northern British Columbia.

Boe, K.N. (1971). Damage to knobcone X Monterey pine hybrids and parents–by red band needle blight in California redwood sites Forest Service, US Dept. of Agriculture, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station.

Bradshaw, R. E., Slot, J. C., Moore, G. G., Chettri, P., Wit, P. J., Ehrlich, K. C., … & Cox, M. P. (2013). Fragmentation of an aflatoxin-like gene cluster in a forest pathogen. New Phytologist, 198(2), 525-535. 

Bradshaw, R.E. (2004). Dothistroma (red-band) needle blight of pines and the dothistromin toxin: a review. Forest Pathology, 34, 163-185.

Bradshaw, R.E., Bhatnagar, D., Ganley, R.J., Gillman, C.J., Monahan, B.J., & Seconi, J.M. (2002). Dothistroma pini, a forest pathogen, contains homologs of aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway genes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68, 2885-2892.

Bradshaw, R.E., Bidlake, A., Forester, N., & Scott, D.B. (1997). Transformation of the fungal forest pathogen Dothistroma pini to hygromycin resistance. Mycological Research, 101, 1247-1250.

Bradshaw, R.E., Feng, Z.L., Schwelm, A., Yang, Y.Z., & Zhang, S.G. (2009). Functional Analysis of a Putative Dothistromin Toxin MFS Transporter Gene. Toxins, 1, 173-187.

Bradshaw, R.E., Ganley, R.J., Jones, W.T., & Dyer, P.S. (2000). High levels of dothistromin toxin produced by the forest pathogen Dothistroma pini. Mycological Research, 104, 325-332.

Bradshaw, R.E., Jin, H.P., Morgan, B.S., Schwelm, A., Teddy, O.R., Young, C.A., & Zhang, S.G. (2006). A polyketide synthase gene required for biosynthesis of the aflatoxin-like toxin, dothistromin. Mycopathologia, 161, 283-294.

Bradshaw, R.E. & Zhang, S.G. (2006). Biosynthesis of dothistromin. Mycopathologia, 162, 201-213.

Bradshaw, R.E., Slot, J.C., Moore, G.G., Chettri, P., de Wit, P.J.G.M., Ehrlich, K.C., Ganley, A.R.D., Olson, M.A., Rokas, A., Carbone, I. and Cox, M.P. (2013) Fragmentation of an aflatoxin-like gene cluster in a forest pathogen. New Phytologist, doi: 10.1111/nph.12161 (In press)

Brookhouser, L.W. & Peterson, G.W. (1970). Infection of Austrian, Scots, and ponderosa pines by Diplodia pinea, University of Nebraska (Lincoln campus).

Brown, A. (2005). Seeing red! Forestry & British Timber, 34, 16-18.

Brown, A. (2011). Dothistroma needle blight. Background for Biosecurtiy Workshop 16th February 2011, Forest Research.

Brown, A. (2012). Time for action: Dothistroma (red band) needle blight in Scotland. Forestry Journal, 18 (2), 16-17.

Brown, A., Green, S., & Hendry, S. (2005). Needle diseases of pine. Information Note – Forestry Commission, 12 pp.-12 pp.

Brown, A. & Webber, J. (2008). Red band needle blight of conifers in Britain. Research Note – Forestry Commission, 8 pp.-8 pp.

Brown, A.V. (2007). Researching the spread of red band needle blight. Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2006-7, 47.

Browne, F.G. (1968). Pests and diseases of forest plantation trees. In Annotated List of the Principle Species Occurring in the British Commonwealth. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Brunette, M., & Caurla, S. (2014). An economic comparison of strategies forest pathogens (No. 2014-07). Laboratoire d’Economie Forestiere, AgroParisTech-INRA.

Brunt, P.J. (1970). An Investigation Into the Extracellular Enzymes Produced by Dothistroma Pini and Their Relation to Pathogenicity: A Thesis… for the Degree of Master of Science in Biochemistry, Massey University.

Bulman, L.S., Dick, M.A., Ganley, R.J., McDougal, R.L., Schwelm, A. and Bradshaw, R.E. (2013) Chapter 23: Dothistroma needle blight. In: Infectious Forest Diseases. Eds. Nicolotti, G. and Gonthier, P., CAB International, Wallingford, UK.

Bulman, L. (1990). Effect of pruning and tree stocking density on Dothistroma disease levels at Kinleith Forest. Ministry of Forestry, Forest Research Institute, Forest Health Project Record No. 2594 (unpublished).

Bulman, L. (2007). Foliar Diseases of Pine – The New Zealand Experience. In Proceedings of the 54th Annual Western International Forest Disease Work Conference; 2006 October 2-6 (ed M. Jackson), Smithers, BC. Missoula, MT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Health Protection.

Bulman, L., Ganley, R.J., & Dick, M. (2008). Needle diseases of radiata pine in New Zealand. Scion. Client report no. 13010

Bulman, L.S. (1993). Cyclaneusma needle-cast and Dothistroma needle blight in NZ pine plantations. New Zealand Forestry, 38, 21-24.

Bulman, L.S., Gadgil, P.D., Kershaw, D.J., & Ray, J.W. (2004). Assessment and control of Dothistroma needle-blight. Forest Research Bulletin, 48 pp.-48 pp.

Butin, H. (1985) Teleomorph-und anamorph-Entwicklung von Scirrhia pini Funk & Parker auf Nadeln von Pinus nigra Arnold.[Teleomorph and anamorph development of Scirrhia pini Funk & Parker of needles from Pinus nigra Arnold]. In Sydowia, Annales Mycologici Ser. II, Vol. 38, pp. 20-27.

Butin, H., Kehr, R., & Pehl, L. (2000). Dothistroma rhabdoclinis sp nov associated with Rhabdocline pseudotsugae on Douglas fir. Forest Pathology, 30, 195-203.

Butin, H. & Richter, J. (1983). Dothistroma needle blight: a new pine disease in the German Federal Republic. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 35, 129-131.

Carson, M.J. (1987). Improving log and wood quality: the role of the radiata pine improvement programme. New Zealand Forestry, 31, 26-30.

Carson, S.D. (1989). Selecting Pinus radiata for resistance to Dothistroma needle blight. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 19, 3-21.

Carson, S.D. (1991). Genotype * environment interaction and optimal number of progeny test sites for improving Pinus radiata in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 21, 32-49.

Carson, S.D. & Carson, M.J. (1993). Breeding for durable resistance to red band needle blight caused by Dothistroma pini assuming quantitative inheritance. In Durability of disease resistance., pp. 309-309.

Chea, C.Y. (1968). The Effects of Temperature and Relative Humidity on Germination of Spores of a New Zealand Isolate of Dothistroma Pini Hulbary: Submittedfor the Degree of Bachelor of Science with Honours in Botany at the Victoria University of Wellington, Victoria University of Wellington.

Chettri, P., Ehrlich, K. C., & Bradshaw, R. E. (2015). Regulation of the aflatoxin-like toxin dothistromin by AflJ. Fungal Biology.

Chettri, P., Calvo, A.M., Cary, J.W., Dhingra, S., Guo, Y.A., McDougal, R.L., & Bradshaw, R.E. (2012). The veA gene of the pine needle pathogen Dothistroma septosporum regulates sporulation and secondary metabolism. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 49, 141-151.

Chettri, P., Ehrlich, K.C., Cary, J.W., Collemare, J., Cox, M.P., Griffiths, S., Olson, M.A., de Wit, P.J.G.M., & Bradshaw, R.E. (2013). Dothistromin genes at multiple separate loci are regulated by AflR. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 51, 12-20.

Chou, C.K. & Zabkiewicz, J.A. (1973). Effect of monoterpenes on spore germination. Report of Forest Research Institute for 1972, New Zealand Forest Service.: Chou, C. K. : Die back of Radiata Pine on Tarawera scoria., 51-51.

Chou, C.K.S. (1991). Perspectives of disease threat in large-scale Pinus radiata monoculture – the New Zealand experience. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 21, 71-81.

Christensen, P.S. & Gibson, I.A.S. (1964). Further observations in Kenya on a foliage disease of pines caused by Dothistroma pini Hulbary, 1: Effect of disease on height and diameter increment in three and four-years-old Pinus radiata. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 43, 326-331.

Close, R.C., Harvey, I.C., Sanderson, F.R., Gaunt, R.E., McCully, A.J., & Teng, P.S. (1978). Session X. Surveys on disease and loss. Epidemiology and crop loss assessment. Proceedings of a workshop held at Lincoln College, Canterbury, New Zealand, 29-31 August, 1977., 28 pp.-28 pp.

Cobb, F., Uhrenholdt, B., & Drohn, R. (1969). Epidemiology of Dothistroma pini needle blight on Pinus radiata. Phytopathology, 59, 1021-1022.

Cobb, F.W. & Miller, D.R. (1968). Hosts and Geographic Distribution of Scirrhia pini–The Cause of Red Band Needle Blight in California. Journal of Forestry, 66, 930-933.

Cobb Jr, F.W. & Libby, W.J. (1968). Susceptibility of Monterey, Guadalupe Island, Cedros Island, and bishop pines to Scirrhia (Dothistroma) pini, the cause of red band needle blight. Phytopathology, 58.

COBOS-SUAREZ, J. M., M. M. RUIZ-URRESTARAZU. 1990. Problemas fítosanitarios de la especie Pinus radiata D. Don en España, con especial referencia al País Vasco(5327K). Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal y Plagas, 16: 37-53.

(Phytosanitary problems in P. radiata in Spain with emphasis on Basque country.


Among the defoliator fungi, Scirrhia pini is the most relevant due to be a primary pathogen, causing partial defoliation of the needles located in the interior and bottom of the crown. The initial symptoms, chlorotic spots in needles, are presented in autumn and winter. Subsequently, this spots take a red colour, showing the typical red bands. At the end of the infection the needle takes a brown colour, but the bottom of the needle that keep a green colour. This process lasts ca. 15-20 days from the first symptoms. Finally, a premature needle fall causes defoliation of the affected trees, and therefore growth losses and, after several attacks, tree mortality. Copper treatments have not been applied because of the presence of this pathogen is limited and its low infestation levels, which doesn’t justify chemical control. Silvicultural treatments, such as pruning and removing understory, are a preventive method to avoid microclimates favourables for the pathogen.)

Contreras, R.H. (1988). Evaluation of different treatments to reduce the effect of Dothistroma septospora on three-year-old Pinus radiata. Bosque, 9, 45-51.

Coops, N., Stanford, M., Old, K., Dudzinski, M., Culvenor, D., & Stone, C. (2003). Assessment of dothistroma needle blight of Pinus radiata using airborne hyperspectral imagery. Phytopathology, 93, 1524-1532.

Crous, P.W., Summerell, B.A., Carnegie, A.J., Wingfield, M.J., Hunter, G.C., Burgess, T.I., Andjic, V., Barber, P.A., & Groenewald, J.Z. (2009). Unravelling Mycosphaerella: do you believe in genera? Persoonia, 23, 99-118.

Crous, P.W., Wingfield, M.J., & Swart, W.J. (1990). Shoot and needle diseases of Pinus spp. in South Africa. South African Forestry Journal, 60-66.

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