This Bulletin, written by experts in their field, describes techniques involved in successful production of bare-rooted and cell- (small container-) grown stock of the tree species most widely planted in United Kingdom forestry. The subjects covered include: formation of new nurseries; maintenance of the fertility of existing nurseries; procurement of seed; production of seedlings and […]
Broadleaved trees and shrubs are frequently scarce in upland forests in Britain, and national policy is to increase the proportion of broadleaves because of their value as wildlife habitat. Birches (Betula pubescens Ehrh. and Betula pendula Roth.) are between them adapted to succeed on a wide range of soils and are the commonest native trees […]
Fencing is a necessary but expensive forest management operation. While it is possible to erect a fence that is completely effective against any animal, this is usually too costly. Any forest fence is a compromise between expense and effectiveness. The introduction of spring steel wire by the Forestry Commission into the construction of forest fences […]
This Bulletin comprises a series of chapters covering all phases of seed usage of commercial forestry species from source selection, through collection, processing, storage and legislation, to seed sowing; each chapter is written by individual specialists in their field. The Bulletin is still available in hardcopy.
Roe deer are distributed widely in Great Britain and are managed for a number of reasons including the reduction of impact on trees and vegetation and their exploitation as a game species. Population data, especially on survivorship, on which to base management plans, are difficult to obtain and have previously been unavailable. This Bulletin gives […]
This Bulletin summarises the findings of a 3-year study sponsored by the Forestry Commission and carried out by the Game Conservancy. The study undertook to quantify habitat requirements of pheasants, to assess the benefits or disadvantages to pheasants of different forms of woodland management and to investigate the effects of managing woods for pheasants on […]
Monitoring should be an integral part of conservation management in forests. It provides managers with information on the status and trend of species or habitats, and indicates whether specific goals have been achieved. Vegetation assessments can be used to monitor habitat quality as well as plant and species composition. Plants can be more easily monitored […]
This Bulletin presents the information from a meeting in 1990 which was focused on Sitka spruce in Britain. The keynote speaker discussed the use of cuttings in spruce plantations throughout the world. A series of speakers then dealt with the following aspects, all of which are provided in this Bulletin: breeding strategy and levels of […]
Sewage sludge, a mixture of solids and water produced during the treatment of waste water, can be used as a valuable fertiliser and is currently widely used as such in agriculture. Since 1981 a joint Forestry Commission/WRc research programme has evaluated the growth responses and environmental implications of sewage sludge applications to forests (Bayes et […]
The Bulletin estimates the consumer surplus (or net monetary benefit) from informal recreation on the Forestry Commission estate. The Forestry Commission’s estate of more than 1 million hectares is managed for mutiple-use and multiple benefits. Calculations of the costs and benefits of timber production are made in financial terms using discounted cash flow models. Most […]
The damage caused by de-icing salt is a serious, but often underestimated, problem which affects substantial numbers of roadside trees and shrubs both in Britain and abroad. This Bulletin has resulted from an extensive review of the world literature on the subject; the findings fall into four distinct categories which comprise its four chapters. Chapter […]
This Bulletin records the proceedings of a seminar held at York University in April 1990, organised jointly by the Arboricultural Association and the Forestry Commission. The seminar was the third of its kind, held every 5 years, since 1980, updating the arboriculture industry on current arboriculture research in the United Kingdom. Twenty-six papers are presented […]
During the summer of 1987 a survey of dieback in non-woodland ash trees was undertaken in Great Britain. After excluding certain areas due to their known low ash population, two hundred 10 km squares were visited and detailed data collected on the condition of ash in a plot selected within each square. Information was obtained […]
The results of the 1990 forest condition monitoring programme are presented. A total of 7644 trees were assessed in the main Forestry Commission monitoring programme in 1990. Five species were examined: Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), Norway spruce (P. abies), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), oak (Quercus spp.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica), distributed over 319 sites. This […]
Honey fungus is one of the commonest root diseases of trees and shrubs in the world. It can kill an enormous range of plants and also causes decay in standing trees. It is rarely a major problem in woodland although it sometimes kills large groups of conifers in young plantations. The disease is more serious […]
Little information is available on the growth rates of urban trees. Trees that survive the establishment phase often put on so little growth that they appear moribund. Conversely, problems occur when a fast growing or large species is successfully established and ‘outgrows’ its living space. There is a need to build up a database of […]
In Britain the use of fertilisers has greatly increased the productivity of forests growing on nutrient-poor soils. In fact, many sites could not otherwise have been successfully afforested. From the early pioneering work of Stirling-Maxwell to the present day, the Forestry Commission has continually tested rates and types of fertiliser and methods of application. A […]
We use 3 types of cookie. You can choose which cookies you're happy for us to use.
Strictly necessary cookies
These essential cookies do things like remember your progress through a form.
They always need to be on.
Cookies that measure website use
We use Google Analytics to measure how you use the website so we can improve it based on user needs.
Google Analytics sets cookies that store anonymised information about:
how you got to the site
the pages you visit on forestresearch.gov.uk and how long you spend on each page
what you click on while you're visiting the site
Cookies that help with our communications and marketing
Some forestresearch.gov.uk pages may contain content from other sites, like YouTube or Flickr, which may set their own cookies. These sites are sometimes called ‘third party’ services. This tells us how many people are seeing the content and whether it’s useful.