Forests and forest management practices can affect surface water acidification in a number of ways. The primary mechanism is the ability of tree canopies to capture more sulphur and nitrogen pollutants from the atmosphere than other types of vegetation. Pollutant scavenging is expected to have peaked in the 1970s when emissions were greatest and led […]
From time to time a calamity such as forest fire or violent storm requires that timber is salvaged quickly. Where such timber is plantation grown the investment loss that major destruction brings is catastrophic unless the most valuable timber can be saved and then marketed in an orderly way. This Bulletin reports on a successful […]
This Bulletin reviews the evidence for a suggested forest effect in the acidification of surface waters in Great Britain. Acid deposition from the atmosphere within susceptible areas of Britain has affected fresh water flora and fauna, causing the decline and in some instances the complete loss of fish populations. Currently there is a debate about […]
Atmospheric pollution in the form of acid deposition has been dramatically reduced since international controls on emissions were introduced in the 1980s. However, acidification still affects acid-sensitive regions of the UK, damaging fisheries and causing adverse ecological changes in freshwaters. Forestry is known to influence the degree of acidification, principally due to the ability of […]
Flooding is a major environmental hazard facing the UK and one that is expected to increase with climate change. Societal impacts and economic damages are likely to escalate, with major floods already costing multiple £billion. These concerns are driving a more sustainable approach to flood risk management involving greater working with natural processes to slow […]
Practising sustainable forestry means managing our forests in a way that meets our needs at present but that does not compromise the ability of future generations to meet their needs. They will rightly expect that their forests and woodlands offer at least the same benefits and opportunities as we enjoy today. To sustain these expectations, […]
This Research Note is based on a review by the University of Exeter that evaluated existing knowledge on valuing the social and environmental contributions of British trees and woodlands. It starts by bringing together different (but related) economic terms and concepts in a single framework for understanding how trees and woodlands contribute to economic well-being, […]
The ecosystem services concept helps describe the benefits which humans receive from nature and natural processes in a way that can influence policy and management decision making. The ability of trees, woodlands and forests to provide a wide range of ecosystem services is very much dependent on where they are located and how they are […]
Xylella fastidiosa is a disease-causing bacterium that affects a wide range of important woody plants and broadleaved trees. It invades the xylem vessels that transport water throughout plants, and causes symptoms ranging from leaf scorch to tree dieback and death. In the natural environment it is transmitted by xylem-fluid feeding insects such as leafhoppers. Until […]
The value of peat bogs as open habitats and stores of carbon may be lost if they are planted with trees. The number of bogs being restored is increasing but still modest in scale relative to the area of afforested peatland. Research is currently being carried out to determine the feasibility and methodology for restoring […]
This Technical Note provides guidance on matching harvesting systems to site conditions to reduce the risk of soil damage and water pollution. It updates some previously identified issues and describes some new techniques. Information is provided on site planning, selection of machines, brash mat construction and maintenance, forest road approaches/drainage and roadside stacking.
Calculations of the quantities of carbon stored by trees requires a knowledge, not only of their growth rates, but also of the proportions of carbon contributing to their chemical make-up. This Technical Paper presents the results of a search of the literature for reported values for carbon contents and results of estimations of carbon contents […]
Studies in the UK and elsewhere have shown that acid freshwater habitats have different floras and faunas and fewer species in most taxonomic groups, when compared with near-neutral waters. The presence or absence of certain common species that are sensitive to acid waters can be used to assess the prevailing chemistry of a water body. […]
Sewage sludge, a mixture of solids and water produced during the treatment of waste water, can be used as a valuable fertiliser and is currently widely used as such in agriculture. Since 1981 a joint Forestry Commission/WRc research programme has evaluated the growth responses and environmental implications of sewage sludge applications to forests (Bayes et […]
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