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  • Publications

    [Archive] How many deer? A guide to estimating deer population size

    Lead Author: Brenda A. Mayle
    Section 1 of this Field Guide considers the need to manage deer. Section 2 gives guidance on choosing a suitable census and sampling method. Section 3 presents 21 methods of population estimation, with a worked example provided in most cases. Methods of greatest use to practising deer managers (in terms of time and cost-effectiveness) are […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Diseases and disorders of forest trees: a guide to identifying causes of ill health in woods and plantations

    Lead Author: S.C. Gregory
    Part I provides some useful guidelines by which managers and owners can investigate health problems in their trees through straightforward field observations. Part II is a key to the major problems of plantation trees. Part III describes the main features of some of the more common and most important diseases and disorders of forest trees […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Christmas tree pests

    Lead Author: Clive Carter
    When conifers have been grown for Christmas trees in lowland arable farmland areas under an intensive short-rotation system, it has sometimes been found difficult to produce good quality foliage without embarking on some kind of insect control. Thirty-one species of aphids, moths, sawflies, beetles and mites are of concern to growers of Christmas trees in […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Weed control in Christmas tree plantations

    Lead Author: Ian Willoughby
    Good weed control is essential for quality Christmas tree production. Herbicides are usually the most cost-effective way of achieving this. Two principal categories of Christmas tree production can be identified: production in forest plantations and specialist horticultural production. For these two situations, suitable candidate herbicides are identified, and guidance on their safe and effective use […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Herbicides for farm woodlands and short rotation coppice

    Lead Author: Ian Willoughby
    Information is given on the use of herbicides in farm woodland and short rotation coppice. Recommendations are given for suitable herbicides for a range of crop and weed species. Approval status, approved products, crop tolerance, weed susceptibility and herbicide mixtures are discussed. A lengthy appendix lists notices of approval for proprietary products. This publication is […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] The use of herbicides in the forest (4th edition)

    Lead Author: Ian Willoughby
    A comprehensive account of chemical weed control techniques for use in forestry. Covers pesticide legislation, safety precautions and good working practices, herbicides for use against specific weed vegetation types, farm forestry weed control, protective clothing and personal equipment, application equipment and output guides, lists of herbicides and manufacturers, sources of advice, and an index of […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Classification and presentation of softwood sawlogs (2nd edition)

    Lead Author: Forestry Commission
    These recommendations are agreed by Forest Enterprise, the British Timber Merchants' Association, and the UK Softwood Sawmillers Association. The normal practice of the Forestry Commission will be to classify parcels of sawlogs offered for sale into four categories: green, red, short green, and log pole, for which descriptions are given. The FC aims to maximise […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Invertebrate animals as indicators of acidity in upland streams

    Lead Author: G.S Patterson
    Studies in the UK and elsewhere have shown that acid freshwater habitats have different floras and faunas and fewer species in most taxonomic groups, when compared with near-neutral waters. The presence or absence of certain common species that are sensitive to acid waters can be used to assess the prevailing chemistry of a water body. […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Champion trees in the British Isles (3rd edition)

    Lead Author: A.F. Mitchell
    This listing includes species down to a considerable degree of rarity and only the very rarest, which have too few known specimens to compete effectively as tallest and stoutest are excluded; but where one specimen is clearly of outstanding size it is included even where very few are known. The more important cultivars are included. […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Assessment of tree condition

    Lead Author: J.L. Innes
    Forest condition is now assessed annually in most European countries. This Field Book provides details of assessment procedures used by the Forestry Commission in their main monitoring programme. Although this programme is restricted to Sitka spruce, Norway spruce, Scots pine, oak and beech, the techniques that are described are applicable with little or no modification […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Mid diameter volume tables (third edition)

    Lead Author: Forestry Commission
    This Field Book provides tables for estimating the volume of logs using the traditional mid diameter method. Although it is a very accurate method, it becomes less accurate as the length increases. The volume is derived from the product of the length of the log and its mean cross-sectional area. In practice it is the […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Classification and presentation of softwood sawlogs

    Lead Author: Forestry Commission
    These recommendations are agreed by Forest Enterprise, the British Timber Merchants' Association, and the UK Softwood Sawmillers Association. The normal practice of the Forestry Commission will be to classify parcels of sawlogs offered for sale into four categories: green, red, short green, and log pole, for which descriptions are given. The FC aims to maximise […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Land capability for forestry in Western Scotland

    Lead Author: D.J. Henderson
    The land capability classification for forestry is based on an assessment of the degree of limitation imposed by the physical factors of soil, topography and climate on the growth of trees and on silvicultural practices. The principal tree species considered are those broadleaves and conifers commonly grown in Britain, and the classification assumes a skilled […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Land capability for forestry in South-West Scotland

    Lead Author: G. Hudson
    The land capability classification for forestry is based on an assessment of the degree of limitation imposed by the physical factors of soil, topography and climate on the growth of trees and on silvicultural practices. The principal tree species considered are those broadleaves and conifers commonly grown in Britain, and the classification assumes a skilled […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Land capability for forestry in Eastern Scotland

    Lead Author: J.H. Gauld
    The land capability classification for forestry is based on an assessment of the degree of limitation imposed by the physical factors of soil, topography and climate on the growth of trees and on silvicultural practices. The principal tree species considered are those broadleaves and conifers commonly grown in Britain, and the classification assumes a skilled […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] Land capability for forestry in Northern Scotland

    Lead Author: W.Towers
    The land capability classification for forestry is based on an assessment of the degree of limitation imposed by the physical factors of soil, topography and climate on the growth of trees and on silvicultural practices. The principal tree species considered are those broadleaves and conifers commonly grown in Britain, and the classification assumes a skilled […]
  • Publications

    [Archive] The use of herbicides in the forest (3rd edition)

    Lead Author: D.R. Williamson
    The Book contains recommendations for the use of herbicides in the forest.
  • Publications

    [Archive] Land capability for forestry in South-East Scotland

    Lead Author: F.T. Dry
    The land capability classification for forestry is based on an assessment of the degree of limitation imposed by the physical factors of soil, topography and climate on the growth of trees and on silvicultural practices. The principal tree species considered are those broadleaves and conifers commonly grown in Britain, and the classification assumes a skilled […]