No information on provenance variation in Britain so seed sources from good British stands should be preferred.
Moderately shade tolerant and cold hardy, and moderately tolerant of exposure. Best suited to fresh to moist soils of rich or very rich fertility. Not suited to very dry or very wet soils or those of poor nutrient status.
Pests and pathogens
Seriously affected in Britain for at least 50 years by Dutch elm disease.
Now only found as a minor component of woodlands. This is a very minor species at present and this is unlikely to change unless the prevalence and severity of Dutch elm disease is much reduced.