Native to Britain and much of Europe.
No information on provenance variation in Britain so seed sources from good British stands should be preferred.
Moderately shade tolerant and cold hardy, and moderately tolerant of exposure. Best suited to fresh to moist soils of rich or very rich fertility. Not suited to very dry or very wet soils or those of poor nutrient status.ECOLOGICAL SITE CLASSIFICATION TOOL
Pests and Pathogens
Seriously affected in Britain for at least 50 years by Dutch elm disease.