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Related Research

Research

Literature review: behaviour and behavioural change

This page is summarises Forest Research’s review of the latest research and practice regarding behaviour and behavioural change.

Status completed

Research

Project evaluation: Neroche Landscape Partnership Scheme

This page summarises Forest Research’s evaluation of the Neroche Landscape Partnership Scheme.

Status completed
Learning from monitoring and evaluation

Research to assess best practice in M&E, and provide models to ensure the findings of M&E are assimilated and applied in ways that help make the Forestry Commission and its partners more responsive, adaptive and sustainable

Estimating visitor and visit numbers to woodlands

This page summarises Forest Research’s review of methods and tools used by forest managers and practitioners to estimate visitor numbers, visit frequencies and total visits to woodlands.

Social change in the National Forest

The page summarises an assessment of social and economic change generated by the National Forest.

Evaluating the impact of trees, woodland and forests on quality of life

The page summarises Forest Research’s work to assess the contribution that trees, woods and forests make to the quality of life of people living and working in the vicinity.

Wildfires in Wales: social drivers and mitigation measures

This page summarises findings from Forest Research’s studies to explore what motivates people to set fires and to assess and test prevention strategies.

Forest Schools: impact on young children in England and Wales

This page summarises findings from an evaluation of two Forest School projects by the New Economics Foundation.

Related Publications

Publication

Metabarcoding reveals a high diversity of woody host-associated Phytophthora spp. in soils at public gardens and amenity woodlands in Britain

A study of Phytophthora diversity in public gardens and amenity woodlands through the use of metabarcoding of soil samples.

Published

Publication

Non-destructive evaluation of Scots pine

Evaluating the use of acoustic tools to assess Scots pine timber quality, and the practical implications for assessing timber quality from naturally regenerated stands. Related pages Tree and Wood Properties Compression Wood Cell wall macromolecules and reaction wood (CEMARE)

Published
Themes
Outdoor Workshop 07.13

* These publications are produced by Technical Development. Some (mainly older) publications are not available online. If you do not find what you are looking for, please contact jens.haufe@forestresearch.gov.uk or bill.jones@forestresearch.gov.uk or phone 0300 067 5919.

Safe fitting of bandtracks to harvesting machinery

Article published in Forest Machine Journal – March 2003 and Forestry & British Timber – April 2003

Modelling the long-term response of stream water chemistry to atmospheric pollution and forestry practices in Galloway, SW Scotland

Report assessing the long term role of forestry in relation to the acidification and recovery of soil and surface water. It targets some of the most acid impacted head waters in the Galloway region of southwest Scotland, including three sub-catchments in the Black Water of Dee (Dargall Lane, Green Burn and Cuttie Shallow); Cardoon Burn […]

How extensive are the impacts of nitrogen pollution in Great Britain's forests?

Protecting our forests from pollutant deposition is and has been a topical issue for some time. Nitrogen, as well as being an essential nutrient for trees, is one of the most important of these pollutants. This article discusses the extent and severity of the issues associated with nitrogen pollution in our forests. By Fiona Kennedy. […]

Stem straightness in Sitka spruce in Scotland and North England

Report on a survey of stem straightness. Related pages Tree and Wood Properties Compression Wood Cell wall macromolecules and reaction wood (CEMARE)

Monitoring and evaluating Quality of Life for the Comprehensive Spending Review 2007

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Evaluation and appraisal Monitoring and evaluating Quality of Life for the Comprehensive Spending Review 2007 (PDF-227K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Valuation of the economic and social contribution of forestry for people in Scotland

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Evaluation and appraisal Valuation of the economic and social contribution of forestry for people in Scotland (PDF-219K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

EFORWOOD: incorporating social and cultural values into sustainability impact assessments of the forestry-wood chainSERG_Quality_of_Life_CSR07.pdf

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Evaluation and appraisal EFORWOOD: incorporating social and cultural values into sustainability impact assessments of the forestry-wood chain (PDF-59K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Woodfuel scoping study

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Economic research Woodfuel scoping study (PDF-266K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Wood products from sustainably managed woodlands: Review of consumer awareness and best marketing practice

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Economic research Wood products from sustainably managed woodlands: Review of consumer awareness and best marketing practice (PDF-521K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Street tree valuation systems

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Economic research Street tree valuation systems (PDF-393K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Payments for ecosystem services: experience and perceptions in the US

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Economic research Payments for ecosystem services: experience and perceptions in the US (PDF-194K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Natural Environment Framework: woodland case study

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Economic research Natural Environment Framework: woodland case study (PDF-220K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Health benefits of street trees

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Economic research Health benefits of street trees (PDF-77K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Estimating woodfuel resource cost curves

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Economic research Estimating woodfuel resource cost curves (PDF-107K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

EU Emissions Trading System: Opportunities for Forests?

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Economic research EU Emissions Trading System: Opportunities for Forests? (PDF-124K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Estimating the aggregate amenity value of woodland views using spatial analysis

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Economic research Estimating the aggregate amenity value of woodland views using spatial analysis (PDF-424K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Estimating amenity values of street trees and woodland views: a methodological review

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Economic research Estimating amenity values of street trees and woodland views: a methodological review (PDF-487K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Critical assessment of evidence of net economic benefits of initiatives to create or improve greenspace

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Economic research Critical assessment of evidence of net economic benefits of initiatives to create or improve greenspace (PDF-79K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Carbon valuation, discounting and risk management

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Economic research Carbon valuation, discounting and risk management (PDF-212K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Carbon additionality

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Economic research Carbon additionality (PDF-189K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Sustainability impact assessment: Tools for environmental, social and economic effects of multifunctional land use in European regions (SENSOR)

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Governance Sustainability impact assessment: Tools for environmental, social and economic effects of multifunctional land use in European regions (SENSOR) (PDF-239K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Stakeholder perceptions of short-rotation forestry

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Governance Stakeholder perceptions of short-rotation forestry (PDF-146K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Review of TreeGeneration: The urban forestry project for north-east Wales

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Governance Review of TreeGeneration: The urban forestry project for north-east Wales (PDF-726K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

RECOAL: Reintegration of coal ash disposal sites and mitigation of pollution in the West Balkan area

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Governance RECOAL: Reintegration of coal ash disposal sites and mitigation of pollution in the West Balkan area (PDF-257K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Public benefits from private forests and woodland in England: classifying private woodland owners

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Governance Public benefits from private forests and woodland in England: classifying private woodland owners (PDF-295K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Management of roe deer in peri-urban Scotland

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Governance Management of roe deer in peri-urban Scotland (PDF-429K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Key ingredients of collaborative (deer) management

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Governance Key ingredients of collaborative (deer) management (PDF-139K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Impact of legislation on collaborative management: the case of wild deer

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Governance Impact of legislation on collaborative management: the case of wild deer (PDF-128K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Human dimensions of adaptive forest management

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Governance Human dimensions of adaptive forest management (PDF-160K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Enhancing the forest sector’s contribution to equal access for disabled people to Scottish forests

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Governance Enhancing the forest sector’s contribution to equal access for disabled people to Scottish forests (PDF-644K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Disturbance of wildlife and the recreational use of forests

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Governance Disturbance of wildlife and the recreational use of forests (PDF-148K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Decision framework for public involvement in forest design planning

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Governance Decision framework for public involvement in forest design planning (PDF-584K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Community woodlands: an overview

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Governance Community woodlands: an overview (PDF-160K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Consultation and community involvement in forest planning: research in Cranborne Chase and North Dorset

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Governance Consultation and community involvement in forest planning: research in Cranborne Chase and North Dorset (PDF-603K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Community experiences of the National Forest Land Scheme

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Governance Community experiences of the National Forest Land Scheme (PDF-713K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Assessing the contribution of forestry grants to equal access for disabled people to Scottish woodlands

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Governance Assessing the contribution of forestry grants to equal access for disabled people to Scottish woodlands (PDF-587K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Assessing and communicating animal disease risks for countryside users

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Governance Assessing and communicating animal disease risks for countryside users (PDF-696K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Woodland-related social enterprises

Legacy socio-economic research summary relating to: Community diversity, coherence and development Woodland-related social enterprises (PDF-69K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Wildfires in Wales

Legacy socio-economic research summary relating to: Community diversity, coherence and development Wildfires in Wales (PDF-134K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Social media and forestry: a scoping review

Legacy socio-economic research summary relating to: Community diversity, coherence and development Social media and forestry: a scoping review (PDF-179K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

The ‘Faith Woodland’ project in Maulden Woods: An evaluation

Legacy socio-economic research summary relating to: Community diversity, coherence and development The ‘Faith Woodland’ project in Maulden Woods: An evaluation (PDF-672K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Social diversity and the forestry profession

Legacy socio-economic research summary relating to: Community diversity, coherence and development Social diversity and the forestry profession (PDF-190K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Hill Holt Wood: Social enterprise and community woodland

Legacy socio-economic research summary relating to: Community diversity, coherence and development Hill Holt Wood: Social enterprise and community woodland (PDF-115K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Public engagement with forests and woodlands

Legacy socio-economic research summary relating to: Community diversity, coherence and development Public engagement with forests and woodlands (PDF-129K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Exploring disabled people’s perceptions and use of forest recreation in Scotland, England and Wales

Legacy socio-economic research summary relating to: Community diversity, coherence and development Exploring disabled people’s perceptions and use of forest recreation in Scotland, England and Wales (PDF-652K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Evaluating Cydcoed – Have community-managed woodlands provided social and economic benefit?

Legacy socio-economic research summary relating to: Community diversity, coherence and development Evaluating Cydcoed – Have community-managed woodlands provided social and economic benefit? (PDF-143K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Engaging with rivers: using imaginative and creative approaches as a learning tool

Legacy socio-economic research summary relating to: Community diversity, coherence and development Engaging with rivers: using imaginative and creative approaches as a learning tool (PDF-205K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

NEA Shared Values Work Package

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Well-being and quality of life NEA Shared Values Work Package(PDF-100KB) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Civil society, the Forestry Commission and partnerships

Legacy socio-economic research summary relating to: Community diversity, coherence and development Civil society, the Forestry Commission and partnerships (PDF-124K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Youth mountain biking at Bedgebury Active England project

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Well-being and quality of life Youth mountain biking at Bedgebury Active England project (PDF-309K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Wild harvests: Social, cultural and economic values of non-timber forest products

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Well-being and quality of life Wild harvests: Social, cultural and economic values of non-timber forest products (PDF-162K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Wood you believe it? Children’s and young people’s perceptions of climate change

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Well-being and quality of life Wood you believe it? Children’s and young people’s perceptions of climate change (PDF-455K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

West Midlands woodland and health pilot evaluation

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Well-being and quality of life West Midlands woodland and health pilot evaluation (PDF-615K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Review of the research evidence in relation to the role of trees and woods in formal education and learning

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Well-being and quality of life Review of the research evidence in relation to the role of trees and woods in formal education and learning (PDF-245K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Review of urban health, health inequalities and the role of urban forestry in Britain

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Well-being and quality of life Review of urban health, health inequalities and the role of urban forestry in Britain (PDF-434K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Review of the Forest Education Initiative in Britain

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Well-being and quality of life Review of the Forest Education Initiative in Britain (PDF-152K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Place-making and Communities: A review of concepts, indicators, policy and practice

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Well-being and quality of life Place-making and Communities: A review of concepts, indicators, policy and practice (PDF-374K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Perspectives on forests and trees: a view from Vermont

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Well-being and quality of life Perspectives on forests and trees: a view from Vermont (PDF-184K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

People’s experiences of woodlands in north-west and south-east England

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Well-being and quality of life People’s experiences of woodlands in north-west and south-east England (PDF-618K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Offenders and nature schemes: Using conservation and forest management in rehabilitation

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Well-being and quality of life Offenders and nature schemes: Using conservation and forest management in rehabilitation (PDF-698K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Peabody Hill Wood: Impact of trees on well-being of residents on two social housing estates

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Well-being and quality of life Peabody Hill Wood: Impact of trees on well-being of residents on two social housing estates (PDF-221K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

New pathways for health and well-being in Scotland

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Well-being and quality of life New pathways for health and well-being in Scotland (PDF-590K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Leisure landscapes: Exploring the role of forestry in tourism

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Well-being and quality of life Leisure landscapes: Exploring the role of forestry in tourism (PDF-113K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Inventory of evidence and programmes relating to trees and forests and (peri-)urban regeneration and place-making

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Well-being and quality of life Inventory of evidence and programmes relating to trees and forests and (peri-)urban regeneration and place-making (PDF-126K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Forest school: A marvellous opportunity to learn

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Well-being and quality of life Forest school: A marvellous opportunity to learn (PDF-160K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Growing places: A study of social change in The National Forest

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Well-being and quality of life Growing places: A study of social change in The National Forest (PDF-364K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Forests for recreation and nature tourism: European COST Action E33

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Well-being and quality of life Forests for recreation and nature tourism: European COST Action E33 (PDF-126K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Evaluation of the Neroche Landscape Partnership Scheme

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Well-being and quality of life Evaluation of the Neroche Landscape Partnership Scheme (PDF-398K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Chopwell Wood health Project

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Well-being and quality of life Chopwell Wood health Project (PDF-140K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Cultural values of trees, woods and forests

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Well-being and quality of life Cultural values of trees, woods and forests (PDF-474K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Environmental volunteering: Motivations, benefits and barriers

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Well-being and quality of life Environmental volunteering: Motivations, benefits and barriers (PDF-584K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Estimating visitor and visit numbers to woodlands

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Well-being and quality of life Estimating visitor and visit numbers to woodlands (PDF-653K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Behaviour and behaviour change: A review

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Well-being and quality of life Behaviour and behaviour change: A review (PDF-228k) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Active England evaluation

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Well-being and quality of life Active England evaluation (PDF-707K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Outdoor Workshop 10.02a

* These publications are produced by Technical Development. Some (mainly older) publications are not available online. If you do not find what you are looking for, please contact jens.haufe@forestresearch.gov.uk or bill.jones@forestresearch.gov.uk or phone 0300 067 5919.

Forest vegetation management in Europe: current practice and future requirements

Results from EU COST Action E47 to help forest managers reduce their dependence on using herbicides in Europe’s forests. Edited by Ian Willoughby (Forest Research), Philippe Balandier, Niclas Scott Bentsen, Nick McCarthy and Jenny Claridge (Forest Research). Related pages Integrated forest vegetation management

Weeding young trees – Avoiding trouble

By Ian Willoughby. Related pages Integrated forest vegetation management

The Savall single drum cableway

(PDF-162K) OutDoor Workshop 09.08

Tractor wire loader

(PDF-135K) OutDoor Workshop 09.05

The iron horse

(PDF-109K) OutDoor Workshop 08.02

Scorpion 1205 mini-forwarder

(PDF-123K) OutDoor Workshop 09.07

ATC timber sulky

OutDoor Workshop 09.04

Compact tractor skidder

(PDF-122K) OutDoor Workshop 08.07

Alstor mini-forwarder

OutDoor Workshop 09.06

ATC forwarder

OutDoor Workshop 09.03

Forest Ground Preparation

OutDoor Workshop 10.01 * These publications are produced by Technical Development. Some (mainly older) publications are not available online. If you do not find what you are looking for, please contact jens.haufe@forestresearch.gov.uk or bill.jones@forestresearch.gov.uk or phone 0300 067 5919.

Health and well-being

Trees, Woodlands and Natural Spaces This publication provides a synopses of presentations and workshop discussions from three expert consultations held on "Health and Well-being: Trees, Woodlands and Natural Spaces" in Scotland, England and Wales in 2002.

Trees and woodlands: Nature's health service

This publication provides information and evidence supporting the idea that the use and enjoyment of woodlands and green spaces improves people’s overall health and well-being. By Liz O'Brien. Forward by Sir Liam Donaldson – Chief Medical Officer for England. November 2005. Executive summary Trees and woodlands: nature’s health service is aimed at a wide range […]

Forest habitat network for Edinburgh and the Lothians

Booklet describing the contribution of woodlands to promote sustainable development within the regional Structure Plan. By Duncan Ray and Darren Moseley.

Double drum highlead winch

This Information Note is one of a series derived from Technical Development Branch (TDB) Outdoor Workshops (ODW). It is produced as a guide to part of a harvesting system suitable for use in small scale woodlands. The Double Drum Highlead System is a method of extracting timber to the roadside by cableway over concave ground […]

Oak processionary moth

Tree Pest Advisory Note A major defoliator of oak in Europe. This document details signs and symptoms of the named tree pest(s) or disease(s) and provides advice on what to do if you suspect the pest or disease is present. Related pages Main oak processionary moth resources page Research and advice on tree pests and […]

The lifecycle of Agrilus biguttatus: the role of temperature in its development and distribution, and implications for Acute Oak Decline

The lifecycle of Agrilus biguttatus: the role of temperature in its development and distribution, and implications for Acute Oak Decline

Moth responses to forest-to-bog restoration

Response of moth communities to restoration of formerly afforested blanket bog

Establishing robust species mixtures

New guidance from Forest Research to help design mixtures at the establishment phase

Novel dendrochronological modelling demonstrates that decades of reduced stem growth predispose trees to Acute Oak Decline

• Novel dendrochronological modelling was developed to explore oak stem growth trends. • Trees with long-term AOD symptoms may have been predisposed many decades earlier. • Diseased trees struggle to take advantage of favourable growing conditions. • Historic episodes of stress may impact the future resilience of oaks to disturbance.

Towards a timber quality model for Sitka spruce in Britain

Conference paper on the development of a timber quality model for British-grown Sitka spruce. Related pages Tree and Wood Properties Compression Wood Cell wall macromolecules and reaction wood (CEMARE)

ATC loading arch trailer

OutDoor Workshop 09.02

Mapping the woodfuel system

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Governance Mapping the woodfuel system (PDF-301K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Engagement with Nature and Covid-19 Restrictions

Report from a study exploring people’s connection with trees, woodlands and wider nature before and during the Covid-19 pandemic. An online survey ran from mid June until the end of July 2020. This publication reports on the findings of the survey.

The herbicide cycloxydim is an effective alternative to propyzamide or glyphosate for the control of the forest grass weeds Molinia caerulea, Calamagrostis epigejos, Deschampsia flexuosa and Holcus lanatus

The herbicide cycloxydim is an effective alternative to propyzamide or glyphosate for the control of the forest grass weeds Molinia caerulea, Calamagrostis epigejos, Deschampsia flexuosa and Holcus lanatus.

The effect of forest-to-bog restoration on the hydrological functioning of raised and blanket bogs

Howson, T., Chapman, P. J., Shah, N., Anderson, R., & Holden, J. (2021). The effect of forest-to-bog restoration on the hydrological functioning of raised and blanket bogs. Ecohydrology, e2334. https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.2334

Acetamiprid, chlorantraniliprole, and in some situations the physical barriers MultiPro® or Kvaae® wax, can be alternatives to traditional synthetic pyrethroid insecticides for the protection of young conifers from damage by the large pine weevil Hylobius

Acetamiprid, chlorantraniliprole, and in some situations the physical barriers MultiPro® or Kvaae® wax, can be alternatives to traditional synthetic pyrethroid insecticides for the protection of young conifers from damage by the large pine weevil Hylobius abietis L.

The threat to UK conifer forests posed by Ips bark beetles

This Report describes the biological and environmental factors that influence attack frequency and severity from Ips bark beetles and assesses strategies for their management, with emphasis on the major threat posed by I. typographus.

Providing the evidence base to diversify Britain’s forests

Early results of species and provenance trials established in 2012.

Dynamic top height models for several major forest tree species in Great Britain

New dynamic top height models for 10 major species in Great Britain for pure, even-aged stands

Historic Urban Tree Canopy Cover of Great Britain

A study of historic and current urban tree canopy cover in Great Britain using aerial imagery.

Species diversification - which species should we use?

This paper stresses that future use of ‘alternative’ species for diversification should be contingent on rigorous biological risk assessment, results from forestry scale trials, and the establishment of sustainable British seed sources.

ESCom 2020 workshop: Scotland's National Ecological Network - progress and practicalities

Summary of a workshop for researchers, policy makers and practitioners to discuss the progress and practicalities of developing a National Ecological Network in Scotland. Embedded in this approach to more sustainable land use is the need to take stock of progress towards regional and national ecological networks to increase resilience into the future.

Forest damage by deer depends on cross‐scale interactions between climate, deer density and landscape structure

This journal paper investigates the factors that drive deer damage to woodlands using the National Forest Inventory sample square data. We found that the likelihood of damage to trees depends on cross-scale interactions between climate, deer density and landscape structure. The complex interactive effects uncovered are difficult to interpret. We therefore provide an interactive Deer Damage Tool for practitioners to visualize how afforestation is likely to influence the probability of deer damage in different forests and regions across Britain.

A sequential multi-level framework to improve habitat suitability modelling

We provide a sequential framework for improved multi-scale habitat suitability modelling or species distribution modelling. We apply it to the lesser horseshoe bat in Britain to demonstrate its improved accuracy and ecological inference.

Final report on assessment of the risk of chemical runoff following use of Gazelle SG as a pre-treatment and top-up spray in forestry

Standard, good forestry practice measures were proven to be effective in preventing containination of stream waters in a detailed study of acetamiprid runoff following the use of Gazelle SG as a pre-treatment and top-up spray in forestry undertaken at Esgair Gors in mid-Wales. Despite progress in the development of non-chemical methods for controlling the large […]

Controlling grey squirrels in forests and woodlands in the UK

This Technical Note provides updated information on methods of grey squirrel control.

Opportunities to use woodland measures for Natural Flood Management in Whinlatter Forest: Scoping Report

The Forest Design Plan for Whinlatter is currently under review and a new aspirations map has been produced. This includes measures such as habitat creation and proposed extensions to the mountain bike trail network. In addition to these proposals, measures to reduce the community flood risk have been considered; such as soft engineering features (leaky […]

Forest clearance for peatland restoration

Phased felling and low impact harvesting can effectively control negative impacts of forest clearance for peatland restoration

An insight to the current state and sustainability of urban forests across Great Britain based on i-Tree Eco surveys

Research into the sustainability of 12 urban forests across Great Britain, and recommendation of a framework to rate sustainability of urban trees.

Opportunities to use woodland measures for Natural Flood Management (NFM) in the Derwent Catchment: Scoping Report

Forest Research was commissioned by Forestry England to carry out a desk-based GIS exercise to determine the potential opportunities of implementing NFM measures in 4 forest areas in the Derwent Catchment. The study focused on the Parkwood Isel, Howgill and Messengemire, Setmurthy and Matterdale forest areas. A desk-based GIS exercise was carried out by Forest […]

Forestry Facts & Figures 2019

A summary of statistics about woodland and forestry in the UK.

How does a biodiversity value impact upon optimal rotation length? An investigation using species richness and forest stand age

A study integrating biodiversity data for British forests with economic modelling of optimal rotation length. Investigation revealed some evidence of relationships between overall species richness and stand age.

Trends in surface water chemistry in afforested Welsh catchments

Analysis of 22 years of water chemistry data from afforested Welsh catchments revealed trends indicative of recovery from acidification

Wood properties and uses of Scots pine in Britain

This Report collates and synthesises research into the production and use of Scots pine timber in Great Britain, drawing where necessary and for comparative purposes on sources from the European continent where Scots pine is better characterised and used in a wider range of applications.

Is the introduction of novel exotic forest tree species a rational response to rapid environmental change? : A British perspective.

A suggested way for British woodlands to combat the problems they are facing due to climate change and exotic pests and diseases is to grow a range of novel exotic tree species. Here we examine the arguments for doing this in the context of British forestry where the objectives are either commercial timber production or conservation of biodiversity.

Influencing behaviour for resilient treescapes: Rapid Evidence Assessment

The Rapid Evidence Assessment considers the following: The impact of policy tools – grants, subsidies, programmes, provision of advice – on the response of land managers to tree pests and diseases The potential of formal networks to act as disseminators of information and knowledge, and mediators of change.

Holocene carbon accumulation in the peatlands of northern Scotland

Summary The response of peatland carbon accumulation to climate can be complex, with internal feedbacks and processes that can dampen or amplify responses to external forcing. Records of carbon accumulation from peat cores provide a record of carbon which persists as peat over long periods of time, demonstrating the long-term response of peatland carbon stocks […]

Peatland afforestation in the UK and consequences for carbon storage

Peatlands are a globally significant store of carbon During the second half of the 20th century new planting techniques combined with tax incentives encouraged commercial forestry across large areas of peat bog in the UK, particularly in the Flow Country of northern Scotland. Such planting was controversial and was ultimately halted by removal of the […]

Getting to know the ‘friendly fungi’ associated with the roots of key timber species

Nadia Barsoum provides highlights of over 10 years of research shedding light on who’s who in the world of friendly fungi colonising tree roots.

The natural capital of floodplains: management, protection and restoration to deliver greater benefits. Valuing Nature - Natural Capital Synthesis Report. VNP09.

Floodplains are important natural capital assets which deliver a wide range of benefits to people. The interface between terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems in floodplains fosters both a wealth and a complexity of resources that are challenging to measure and compare.

Forestry Facts & Figures 2018

This booklet contains a summary of statistics about woodland and forestry. The complete statistics for 2017 are available on our forestry statistics web page.Please note – the printed version of this document is an A2 sheet folded to A6. The PDF of the document is set to print at A3 therefore some of the pages […]

Importing firewood (3rd edition)

Plant Health controls apply to a wide range of wood products, including firewood. These controls are in place to prevent the spread of pests and pathogens that would be ecologically and economically damaging if introduced to Great Britain (GB). Import controls are tree species specific, and may vary according to the country of origin and […]

Niches for species: a multi-species model to guide woodland management

To protect biodiversity in the face of environmental change, there is a need to designate and manage areas of habitat for rare and threatened species. However, to identify the right areas usually requires detailed data on species distributions. Reliable data for rare and protected species are sparse as many species are cryptic and under-recorded. The […]

Conservation of black poplar: insights from a DNA fingerprinting approach

Black poplar is Great Britain’s rarest native hardwood and there is considerable interest in conserving the genetic diversity present in the remaining population. However, multiplication by vegetative propagation has led to issues in identifying and selecting genetically diverse native planting material. The ability to use DNA markers to identify poplars at the level of the […]

Import Inspection Fees for Wood, Wood Products and Bark (5th edition)

This Guide explains which imports of wood, wood products and bark are subject to chargeable import inspection, how much the fees are, and how they may be paid.A credit application form for import business is available to download here as pdf file:[<a href=”/website/pdf.nsf/pdf/fcph002a.pdf/$FILE/fcph002a.pdf”>]Credit application form[</a>]

Forest Reproductive Material: Regulations controlling seed, cuttings and planting stock for forestry in Great Britain (2nd edition)

The Forest Reproductive Material (Great Britain) Regulations provide a system of control for seed, cuttings and planting stock that is used for forestry purposes in Great Britain

Encouraging biodiversity at multiple scales in support of resilient woodlands

Woodland ecosystems are integral to our health, well-being, security and economy, but they face a number of pressures including climate change, land-use intensification, and emerging pests and diseases. This Research Note explores the links between biodiversity, measured at different levels of organisation (genes, species and communities), and the ability of woodland ecosystems to withstand and […]

Outdoor learning: closing the attainment gap in primary schoolchildren in Scotland

This Research Note compares the performances of 71 primary schoolchildren carrying out curricular tasks in outdoor and indoor classroom settings. By observing, recording and analysing how the children performed in group activities taken from the Scottish curriculum, an evaluation could be made of the relative merits of indoor and outdoor learning. In general, the results […]

Importing wood, wood products and bark: Requirements for landing controlled material into Great Britain from non-EU countries (4th edition)

This Plant Health Guide sets out the requirements for landing controlled material from non-EU countries into Great Britain. It lists controlled genera and species and highlights the import regulations that apply to the landing of wood, wood products and bark from these species from countries outside of the EU. This 4th edition reflects recent changes […]

Using DNA barcoding and metabarcoding to detect species and improve forest biodiversity monitoring

Growing threats to biodiversity from pressure of land use, climate change, and invasive pests and diseases highlight the importance of obtaining accurate baseline measurements of current forest biodiversity, as well as improved monitoring to detect early signals of change. Developments in molecular techniques have advanced to the stage that there are now practical methods available […]

A review of the effects of forest management intensity on ecosystem services for northern European temperate forests with a focus on the UK

Abstract Ecosystem services (ES) are the benefits that people receive from ecosystems. Understanding the impact of forest management on their supply can inform policy and practice for meeting societal demand. The objectives of this paper are to identify and review the effect of management intensity on priority ES supply and identify synergies and trade-offs among […]

Urban Forests in a European Perspective: what can the National Forest Inventory tell us?

This pilot project demonstrates that the NFI data, in combinationwith the DEGURBA approach, provides existing data onEuropean urban forests. Now that we know what we have, thereis potential to quantify and qualify the state and trends ofEuropean urban forests. Moving forward we can draw onexisting policies and concepts such as ecosystem services tomodel what urban […]

Quantifying the hydrological effect of woodland creation in the Camowen and Drumragh catchments, Omagh, Northern Ireland

The 'Runoff Curve Number' rainfall-runoff model, developed by the USDA Soil Conservation Service, was applied to the catchments draining to Omagh, to assess the potential effect of woodland creation on flood flows. The 'Runoff Curve Number' method provides a potentially powerful tool for evaluating the impact of land use change and management on surface runoff, […]

EcoServ-GIS: a toolkit for mapping ecosystem services

Mapiing ecosystem services at a county and region scale The EcoServ-GIS toolkit generates maps illustrating the need for each service as well as the capacity for service provision, using scientifically-based, standardised methods and widely available datasets. Itprovides users with the facility to overlay these maps to show how well demand and capacity coincide in space, […]

Practical solutions for bottlenecks in ecosystem services mapping

Palomo I, Willemen L, Drakou E, Burkhard B, Crossman N, Bellamy C, Burkhard K, Campagne CS, Dangol A, Franke J, Kulczyk S, Le Clec’h S, Malak DA, Muñoz L, Narusevicius V, Ottoy S, Roelens J, Sing L, Thomas A, Van Meerbeek K, Verweij P (2018) . One Ecosystem 3: e20713. Abstract Ecosystem services (ES) mapping […]

Timber, carbon and wind risk: towards an integrated model of optimal rotation length

Modern forest management practice increasingly adopts an ecosystem services approach to account for the multiple benefits and objectives of forestry. It is also increasingly linked to climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. In view of the priority given to these policy agendas, it is important that new models take an integrated approach to accounting for […]

Solving how a complex disease threatens our iconic oak

Scientists have for the first time tracked down the cause of the stem bleeding symptoms of acute oak decline.

Forestry Facts & Figure 2017

This booklet contains a summary of statistics about woodland and forestry. The complete statistics for 2017 are available on our forestry statistics web page.Please note – the printed version of this document is an A2 sheet folded to A6. The PDF of the document is set to print at A3 therefore some of the pages […]

Pitch Canker Field guide

Field guide This document details signs and symptoms of the named tree pest(s) or disease(s) and provides advice on what to do if you suspect the pest or disease is present. Related pages Research and advice on tree pests and diseases Tree Health Diagnostic and Advisory Service Tree pest and disease posters

Choice of silver birch planting stock for productive woodands

Silver birch is second only to oak in terms of total broadleaved woodland area in Britain. In the last two decades there has been an increase in the planting of birch woodlands both for timber production and the creation of native woodlands. The GB map of Native Seed Zones and Regions of Provenance provides guidance […]

Assessing the investment returns from timber and carbon in woodland creation projects

Financial returns from woodland creation have traditionally been generated from sales of timber. In recent years, the voluntary carbon market has established and grown in the UK and landowners can now generate additional revenue from the sale of carbon. The sale of carbon ‘credits’ allows landowners to increase their financial returns by creating woodlands for […]

Pine pitch canker - Pest Alert

Pine pitch canker, also known as pitch or pitch pine canker, is a serious canker disease of pines and Douglas fir caused by the fungus Fusarium circinatum. The disease affects trees in planted forests, nurseries, parks and gardens. In plantations, the disease leads to reduced growth and cone yield and can kill trees. It will […]

The UK Forestry Standard - summary checklist

Practising sustainable forestry means managing our forests in a way that meets our needs at present but that does not compromise the ability of future generations to meet their needs. They will rightly expect that their forests and woodlands offer at least the same benefits and opportunities as we enjoy today. To sustain these expectations, […]

Harvesting Machine Census 2016 (FR_TDJR173)

Harvesting Machine Census 2016 (FR_TDJR173)

Assessing the stem straightness of trees

Stem straightness is important in determining tree and log value. The ability to make an effective assessment before harvesting is useful for forest managers and practitioners to improve forecasting, planning, marketing and resource use. This Technical Note describes three methods for assessing stem straightness in standing trees: visual assessment, photogrammetric measurement and terrestrial lidar. It […]

The UK Forestry Standard 2017

The UK governments have set out their requirements for sustainable forest management in the UK Forestry Standard. Available both as ePub and PDF.

Ecological impacts of ash dieback and mitigation methods

Ash is a widespread species which makes a substantial contribution to many landscapes. Ash trees are affected by ash dieback, a disease caused by a fungus. It is clear from the European experience of the disease that a significant number of ash trees could be lost from woodlands in the UK over the course of […]

Implications of lowland broadleaved woodland management for the conservation of target bird species

This research consisted of a literature review and field study which investigated woodland management for birds within lowland broadleaved woodlands in Britain. The research considered the effect of woodland management (silvicultural intervention and control of deer browsing) on vegetation structure, and the relationships between vegetation structure and woodland birds. Based on habitat–bird relationships, a classification […]

Forest disturbances under climate change

Disturbances such as droughts, wind and insects attacks all result in stress for forests and they are influenced by changing climate. Forests cover about a third of worldwide land surface, but knowledge is still lacking about how these types of disruptions interact with one another given global climate change. Now, for the first time, an […]

Cultural ecosystem benefits of urban and peri-urban green infrastructure across different European countries

Research urges decision-makers to take account of broad ranging cultural benefits gained from green spaces in our towns and cities The cultural benefits of green spaces, sometimes referred to as ‘green infrastructure’, are difficult to measure and value. As a result they lack integration into decision making about how to design and manage green infrastructure. […]

What Do Forest Managers Want to Know About Adaptation?

Research exploring what forest managers want to know about climate change adaptation Adaptation to climate change involves adjusting Forest Management to anticipate future changes. Starting to adapt woodland and forests to the changing climate now is important if owners and society wish to continue to benefit from the range of services they provide, capitalise on […]

Growth rates of common urban trees in five cities in Great Britain: A dendrochronological evaluation with an emphasis on the impact of climate

Trees in cities provide important benefits (or ecosystem services), such as decreased local air temperatures, reduced air pollution and the attenuation of storm water. The range and volume of the benefits provided depends on the size of the trees and their canopy. While city locations can be good places for trees to grow, for example […]

Opportunity mapping for woodland creation to reduce flood risk in Northern Ireland

The report provide results, methods and details of the source data used in a mapping project to provide GIS spatial datasets which identify priority areas for woodland creation to benefit flood risk management in Northern Ireland. Maps are also avaliable in an addtional document.  The results provide a strong basis for developing and refining catchment […]

Delivery of ecosystem services by urban forests

This Research Report looks at a broad range of urban forest-based ecosystem services and disservices and, using a literature review, links their provision with four aspects of urban forests (physical scale, physical structure and context in terms of location and proximity to people and land use and ownership). A key objective of this report is […]

Valuing the social and environmental contribution of woodlands and trees in England, Scotland and Wales

This Research Note is based on a review by the University of Exeter that evaluated existing knowledge on valuing the social and environmental contributions of British trees and woodlands. It starts by bringing together different (but related) economic terms and concepts in a single framework for understanding how trees and woodlands contribute to economic well-being, […]

Valuing the social and environmental contribution of woodlands and trees in England, Scotland and Wales

Woodlands and trees have a wide-ranging role in the economy but this is often under-valued in conventional economic indicators. For example, woodlands deliver social and environmental benefits – such as outdoor access, biodiversity and carbon sequestration – which are largely unpriced in economic transactions but which have important impacts on the economy and on society’s […]

The implications of upland conifer management for breeding birds

Stand structure is an important determinant of habitat quality for forest biodiversity and is influenced by management. In conifer plantations, the varied structure created within a stand by continuous cover forestry (CCF) systems has been expected to be better for woodland birds than the range of discrete stand structures created through rotations of clearfelling and […]

Supplying trees in an era of environmental uncertainty: Identifying challenges faced by the forest nursery sector in Great Britain

Paper explores challenges faced by the nursery sector in Great Britain in an era of environmental uncertainty In recent years, there have been many studies exploring the management strategies that might be used to enable our forests to better cope with climate change. However, these seldom take into account the practical and economic implications of […]

The genetic consequences of long term habitat fragmentation on a self-incompatible clonal plant, Linnaea borealis L.

Study finds twinflower in Scotland exhibits genetic effects of chronic population fragmentation Habitat fragmentation is widely thought to contribute to the decline of plant species. In part, this is due to the restriction it places on the flow of genes (which occurs through pollen and seed dispersal) within a plant population, creating sub-populations within which […]

Allometric relationships for urban trees in Great Britain

Tree allometry describes the relationships between tree biometric variables, such as tree diameter, height and crown width. Understanding of these relationships helps urban foresters to assess many of the economic and ecological benefits (e.g. carbon storage, rainwater interception and regulation of temperatures) provided by trees, such as through the use of the urban forest management […]

Forestry Facts & Figures 2016

This booklet contains a summary of statistics about woodland and forestry. The complete statistics for 2016 are available on our forestry statistics web page.Please note – the printed version of this document is an A2 sheet folded to A6. The PDF of the document is set to print at A3 therefore some of the pages […]

Converting planted non-native conifer to native woodlands: a review of the benefts, drawbacks and experience in Britain

Planted forests of non-native conifers make up around 36% of Britain’s total wooded area. Increasing the area of native woodlands – including converting non-native conifer to native woodland where appropriate – is an aim of the UK Forestry Standard Guidelines on Biodiversity. It is unclear how much conversion is being implemented, what the motivations might […]

Understanding the provision of conifer seed for woodland species

Conifer seed provides an important food resource for many woodland mammals, birds and insects, including some of Britain’s rarest species. This Research Note brings together information from a number of sources on cone and seed production by the main conifers planted in Britain. This information can help managers assess the seed resources of their woodlands […]

New climate change information modifies frames and decisions of decision makers: an exploratory study in forest planning

This paper explores how information about climate change and its impacts on the provision of forest products and services, influences forest planners’ decisions about forest management. It explains that research has found that when this information was presented to forest planners, it resulted in forest management actions being planned to occur at more appropriate times […]

Sustainable construction timber

Timber is a versatile and high performance construction material that can be produced in most parts of the UK. This second edition of ‘Sustainable construction timber’ has been written to help building designers and contractors source and specify local timber products. The report explains why local sourcing of timber is important, reviews the range of […]

Forestry trials of compost & AD in Central Scotland

: Forestry Commission Report 2016. Results of forestry reclamation trials Central Scotland using green compost and fibre anaerobic digestate. Contact Jens Haufe. What's of interest These publications are produced by Technical Development. Some (mainly older) publications are not available online. If you do not find what you are looking for, please contact jens.haufe@forestresearch.gov.uk or bill.jones@forestresearch.gov.uk […]

The influence of climate change on forest insect pests in Britain

Predicting future risks of damage by insect pests is an important aspect of forest management. Climate change has the potential to affect forest pests and their impact on trees through higher temperatures, altered precipitation patterns, and more frequent extreme weather events. Warmer temperatures are likely to have complex effects on insects, influencing, among other things, […]

Biodiversity and rotation length: economic models and ecological evidence

This Research Note presents the findings of a study which examined how biodiversity changes with stand age, with a view to incorporating it into optimal forest rotation length modelling. The study reviewed relevant literature and analysed Forestry Commission Biodiversity Assessment Project data. The review revealed no simple or universal response of biodiversity to stand age. […]

Pine processionary moth - Pest Alert

Pine processionary moth is a serious pest of pine trees in southern Europe. The moth larvae (caterpillars) feed on pine needles and defoliate trees, which reduces tree growth and timber production. Large numbers of larvae can cause severe damage – weakening the trees sufficiently to make them vulnerable to other pests and diseases and, in […]

Chestnut blight - Pest Alert

Chestnut blight is a serious disease of chestnut trees caused by the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica. The fungus does little damage to host trees in its native range in Asia, but has devastated American chestnut when it was accidentally introduced to the USA more than 100 years ago via infected planting stock. The disease was introduced […]

Natural Play: how can we enable children to benefit from nature?

There is increasing evidence that contact with nature provides a wide variety of benefits for children. These include physical, mental and social well-being benefits as well as a wide range of learning opportunities and the chance to develop an interest in and understanding of nature. At the same time, there is increasing global concern that […]

Path Note 16 Neonectria

Pathology note This document details signs and symptoms of the named tree pest(s) or disease(s) and provides advice on what to do if you suspect the pest or disease is present. Related pages Research and advice on tree pests and diseases Tree Health Diagnostic and Advisory Service Tree pest and disease posters

No seed zone effects on the survival, growth, and stem form of Pacific silver fir in Britain

Long-term research finds Pacific silver fir has great potential as a forestry species in Britain With our climate changing and an increasing range of pests and diseases affecting trees in Britain, it is important forest managers diversify the tree species they plant and use a wider range of forest management systems (e.g. continuous cover forestry). […]

[Archive] Forty-ninth Annual Report of the Forestry Commission 1967-1969

Published by HMSO, for the period ended 31 March 1969.

Do non-native conifer plantations provide benefits for a native forest specialist, the wood ant Formica lugubris?

Recent research by Forest Research scientists and colleagues at the University of York shows that northern hairy wood ants (Formica lugubris) have successfully colonised plantations of largely non-native coniferous species in the North York Moors National Park. The studies show that there has been a remarkable expansion of the population of this ant into new […]

Guidance on site suitability of small and medium scale harvesting and extraction machinery for forest harvesting (FR_TDJR150).

Guidance on site suitability of small and medium scale harvesting and extraction machinery for forest harvesting (FR_TDJR150).

Importing woodchip

Plant Health controls apply to a wide range of wood products, including woodchip. These controls are in place to prevent the spread of pests and pathogens that would be ecologically and economically damaging if introduced to Great Britain (GB). Import regulations are tree species specific, and may vary according to the country of origin and […]

Export certification

Pests and diseases can be carried on plants and trees, seeds, wood and wood products including wooden packaging material and isolated bark. They may also be carried on vehicles and machinery where they have not been properly cleaned and are carrying soil or plant debris. If you intend to export such material out of Great […]

Climate change adaptation strategies in a fragmented landscape

A multi-species modelling approach to examine the impact of alternative climate change adaptation strategies on range shifting ability in a fragmented landscape This paper describes research to test the effects of varying ‘climate change adaptation strategies’ on the ability of different animals to move through the landscape in response to changing climatic conditions. The adaptation […]

Safety guidance for selecting small and mini scale harvesting and extraction machinery for forest harvesting (FR_TDJR131).

Safety guidance for selecting small and mini scale harvesting and extraction machinery for forest harvesting (FR_TDJR131).

Minimum facilities at ports

This revised Guide sets out the obligations which apply to port authorities and others responsible for the points of entry in Great Britain where controlled wood, wood products or other goods which are accompanied by wooden packaging are landed. The Guide gives advice on the facilities needed, not only to meet the requirements of the […]

Adapting Scotland's forests to climate change using an action expiration chart

New decision-making tool helps ecosystem services to adapt to the potential impact of climate change on Scottish forests In a paper published in Environmental Research Letters Michal Petr and colleagues investigate the impacts of future climate change on forest ecosystem services in Scotland and describe a new approach to supporting adaptation decisions in forestry. To […]

Community based forest enterprises in Britain: Two organising typologies

Business and enterprise models in community based forest enterprises in Britain In a paper published in the journal Forest Policy and Economics, Forest Research social scientists, Bianca Ambrose-Oji, Anna Lawrence and Amy Stewart, examine diverse community-based and social enterprise business models by using a systematic framework to organise evidence from 33 case studies across Wales, […]

Ecosystem services and forest management

The ecosystem services concept helps describe the benefits which humans receive from nature and natural processes in a way that can influence policy and management decision making. The ability of trees, woodlands and forests to provide a wide range of ecosystem services is very much dependent on where they are located and how they are […]

Xylella fastidiosa - Pest Alert

Xylella fastidiosa is a disease-causing bacterium that affects a wide range of important woody plants and broadleaved trees. It invades the xylem vessels that transport water throughout plants, and causes symptoms ranging from leaf scorch to tree dieback and death. In the natural environment it is transmitted by xylem-fluid feeding insects such as leafhoppers. Until […]

Plane wilt (canker stain disease) Pest Alert

Plane wilt, also known as canker stain disease, is a serious disorder of plane trees, which are important amenity trees in the parks and avenues of many European cities. The disease is caused by the fungus Ceratocystis platani, which is present in the USA and Europe, but considered to be indigenous only to North America. […]

Forestry Facts & Figures 2015

This booklet contains a summary of statistics about woodland and forestry.Please note – the printed version of this document is an A2 sheet folded to A6. The PDF of the document is set to print at A3 therefore some of the pages will appear upside down.

[Archive] Corporate Plan 2015-16: Forestry Commission England

This Corporate Plan sets out how the Forestry Commission in England will increase the value of England’s woods and forests, now and for generations to come.

[Archive] Corporate Plan 2015-16: Forestry Commission Cross Border Activities

This Corporate Plan sets out how the Forestry Commission will deliver its cross border functions.

Comparing the Costs and Revenues of Transformation to Continuous Cover Forestry for Sitka Spruce in Great Britain

Paper examines the economics of transforming a stand of Sitka spruce to Continuous Cover Forestry Recently continuous cover forestry (CCF) has become an accepted approach to forest management in Britain, but uncertainty about its economic consequences may be a barrier to its wider use. A study was carried out to examine the costs and revenues […]

Controlling rhododendron through the use of herbicides

Problems associated with Rhododendron ponticum Rhododendron ponticum is a highly invasive species affecting woodland in the UK. It is also a host to two particularly significant diseases affecting our woodlands – Phytophthora ramorum and Phytophthora kernoviae. To control their spread, the eradication of rhododendron, usually by cutting and removal, is an accepted management practice. The […]

[Archive] Forestry Commission Annual Report and Accounts: England and Central Services 2014 - 2015

The report is available to download here or to buy in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

Forests as places of mental well-being for people with dementia

This Research Note is based on a PhD research study ‘Forests as places of mental well-being: the meaning and use of urban forests by people with early-stage dementia’. The study examines and develops ways for people with dementia (especially those in the early stages) to engage with nature, and with other people, in the context […]

Trees and Woods in Scottish Towns: The role of Local Authorities

Report giving a snapshot of the state of urban tree management by local authorities in Scotland. By A. van der Jagt and Anna Lawrence What's of interest If your organisation has an interest in working with us on collaborative research related to greening brownfield or contaminated sites then please email: landrec@forestry.gsi.gov.uk Related pages Brownfield regeneration […]

[Archive] Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2014-2015

This report is available to download here or to order in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

Shake in oak: an evidence review

Shake (internal splitting of the wood in a growing tree) is believed to affect and devalue around one-fifth of British oak crops. There is currently no fully reliable method to identify the defect in standing trees, or to predict vulnerable sites and stands without local knowledge and historical data. Shake may appear on any site, […]

Effects of urban density on carbon dioxide exchanges

Carbon dioxide is an important greenhouse gas contributing to global climate change. This paper quantifies the size of carbon dioxide flows between the land and the atmosphere in 1) a woodland at Alice Holt in Surrey, 2) a suburban site in Swindon and 3) an urban site in central London. The paper shows that annually, […]

Recumbent Stone Circles

Recumbent Stone Circles: a learning resource for teachers of Curriculum for Excellence Level 2. This resource aims to help teachers and youth group leaders explore the recumbent stone circles of Aberdeenshire.

Action for the Environment on Scotland's National Forest Estate

Action for the Environment on Scotland's National Forest Estate describes just some of the recent work we have been doing to ensure that our natural and cultural heritage is protected, conserved and enhanced.

The Picts

The Picts: a learning resource for teachers of Curriculum for Excellence Level 2.

Effects of provenance on survival, growth and stem form of European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.)in Britain

Use of European silver fir in forestry re-assessed Large-scale use of European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) was discounted in the mid-twentieth century. A recent paper by Forest Research scientists Gary Kerr, Victoria Stokes, Andrew Peace and Richard Jinks in the European Journal of Forest Research challenges that assumption and, using results from 46 year […]

In plantadetection used to define the distribution of the European lineages of Phytophthora ramorumon larch (Larix) in the UK

UK distribution of Phytophthora ramorum evolutionary types provided by new testing method By developing a new molecular-based testing method based on PCR techniques, Forest Research scientists have been able to examine the distribution of the two main lineages of Phytophthora ramorum responsible for the major epidemic on larch (Larix spp.) in the UK. In a […]

Upgrading Seed Lots of European Silver Fir (Abies alba Mill.) using Imbibition-Drying-Separation

How effective is imbibition-drying- separation? European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) produces good seed crops every three to five years but these crops often have a high proportion of empty seeds. In many tree species, the empty and insect-infested seeds are removed during processing and cleaning of seed lots. However, this is only possible if […]

Hot-water treatment as a possible method for eradicating Chalara fraxinea (Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus ) infection from ash fruits (Fraxinus excelsior L )

Treating ash seeds with hot water may kill Chalara infection Immersing ash seeds in 44°C water for 5 hours may eradicate Chalara infection in ash seeds without significantly reducing the viability of the seeds. Forest Research scientists have published the results of this trial in Quarterly Journal of Forestry. Batches of ash fruits were subjected […]

Oriental Chestnut Gall Wasp

News of a recent unwelcome discovery and how ‘citizen science’ can play an important role in surveying and identification. An overview of the 2015 discoveries of Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Oriental chestnut gall wasp; OCGW) in European sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa) trees in Farningham Woods, Kent and St Albans, Hertfordshire, was published in Quarterly Journal of Forestry. […]

An easy guide to forest trees and their uses (Gaelic version)

Iùl beag air craobhan choilltean Is mar a chleachdas iadGheibhear san iùl bheag seo fiosrachadh air na diofar chraobhan a lorgas ann an coilltean is air fearann-coillteach ann am Breatainn. Innsidh e mar a dh’aithnichear diofar ghnèithean cumanta agus cho cudromach ‘s a tha iad ann am beatha-làitheil dhaoine. This Guide lets you find out […]

Behavioural policy 'nudges' to encourage woodland creation for climate change mitigation

Evidence indicates that woodland creation is generally a cost-effective method of climate change mitigation, when compared with a range of alternatives. However, engaging landowners and land managers in woodland creation schemes can sometimes prove difficult, and this affects prospects for meeting national woodland planting targets and associated climate change mitigation objectives. Although reluctance to plant […]

Behavioural policy ‘nudges’ to encourage woodland creation for climate change mitigation

Evidence indicates that woodland creation is generally a cost-effective method of climate change mitigation, when compared with a range of alternatives. However, engaging landowners and land managers in woodland creation schemes can sometimes prove difficult, and this affects prospects for meeting national woodland planting targets and associated climate change mitigation objectives. Although reluctance to plant […]

We have stopped moving: Tackling physical inactivity – a role for the Public Forest Estate in England?

This briefing note outlines evidence on the role of the Public Forest Estate in helping to tackle physical inactivity. It draws on research into the health benefits of forests and also greenspace and green infrastructure in which trees are often an important or key component. It argues that the Public Forest Estate in England is […]

Forest Seedlings: A guide to the identification of tree and shrub seedlings in Britain

The ability to accurately identify tree and shrub seedlings is invaluable to anyone with an interest in forests and woodlands and it is fundamental to practical woodland management. However, identifying seedlings in their first year of growth is not as straightforward as identifying adult trees and shrubs, as they are often strikingly different in appearance. […]

Phytophthora austrocedri - Pest Alert

Phytophthora austrocedri (previously spelled austrocedrae) is an aggressive, fungus-like pathogen that poses a serious threat to juniper trees in Britain. Juniper is an important native species and a significant proportion of the small area of juniper woodland in Britain is protected. Phytophthora austrocedri was first reported in the UK in 2011, and infected trees have […]

Forestry Facts & Figures 2014

This booklet contains a summary of statistics about woodland and forestry.Please note – the printed version of this document is an A2 sheet folded to A6. The PDF of the document is set to print at A3 therefore some of the pages will appear upside down.

[Archive] Forestry Commission Annual Report and Accounts: England and Central Services 2013 - 2014

The report is available to download here or to buy in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

Horse chestnut bleeding canker

Horse chestnut is an important amenity tree species which has been significantly affected over the past decade by a widespread outbreak of bleeding canker disease. Symptoms include rust-coloured or blackened bleeding cankers on the stem and branches, which can lead to tree mortality. The causal agent of this disease is the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae […]

[Archive] Corporate Plan 2014-15: Forestry Commission Cross Border Activities

This Corporate Plan sets out how the Forestry Commission will deliver its cross border functions.

[Archive] Corporate Plan 2014-15: Forestry Commission England

This Corporate Plan sets out how the Forestry Commission will rise to new challenges and seize fresh opportunities over the coming year in protecting, improving and expanding the nation’s woodlands.

Carbon in live woodland trees in Britain

This Inventory Report is one of a series of publications reporting the outputs of the Forestry Commission National Forest Inventory. It forms part of the 25-year forecast of softwood availability series, which includes the following reports:• Standing timber volume for coniferous trees in Britain• 25-year forecast of softwood timber availability• 25-year forecast of standing coniferous […]

Biomass in live woodland trees in Britain

This Inventory Report is one of a series of publications reporting the outputs of the Forestry Commission National Forest Inventory. It forms part of the 25-year forecast of softwood availability series, which includes the following reports:• Standing timber volume for coniferous trees in Britain• 25-year forecast of softwood timber availability• 25-year forecast of standing coniferous […]

[Archive] Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2013-2014

This report is available to download here or to order in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

Elm yellows - Pest Alert

Elm yellows is a disease of elm trees caused by a type of bacterium known as a phytoplasma. Symptoms of the disease can range from yellowing of leaves to dieback of foliage and branches. Elm yellows has been found affecting elm trees in North America and a few European countries, but in 2014 it was […]

Using quality compost to reclaim land for forestry and woody biomass

: Forestry Commission Report 2014. Technical guidance on using quality compost to reclaim land for forestry and woody biomass. Contact Jens Haufe. What's of interest These publications are produced by Technical Development. Some (mainly older) publications are not available online. If you do not find what you are looking for, please contact jens.haufe@forestresearch.gov.uk or bill.jones@forestresearch.gov.uk […]

Improving timber transport

The Strategic Timber Transport Fund (STTF) was introduced in 2005 to facilitate the sustainable transport of timber in rural areas of Scotland…

Forestry and surface water acidification

Forests and forest management practices can affect surface water acidification in a number of ways. The primary mechanism is the ability of tree canopies to capture more sulphur and nitrogen pollutants from the atmosphere than other types of vegetation. Pollutant scavenging is expected to have peaked in the 1970s when emissions were greatest and led […]

Tree Stories - a learning resource

The Tree Stories were created over a year and inspired by Highland Perthshire’s beautiful fauna and flora. Each story was created during the month with which its tree is linked in folklore.

The Woodland Workout - Teachers' Guide

The original Woodland Workout was a Forest Education Initiative project supported by Forestry Commission Scotland.The resource was developed by four teachers.The aim of the project was to produce a resource that could easily be used by teachers and enable them to offer a wide range of outdoor activities and exercises to their pupils. The activities […]

Phytophthora lateralis - Pest Alert

Phytophthora lateralis is an aggressive, fungallike pathogen of Lawson cypress trees. It mainly attacks the roots of trees and can spread up through the trunk resulting in the rapid decline and death of the tree. Thought to originate in Asia, the disease is the main cause of mortality in Lawson cypress in its native range […]

Well-being for all? Social distribution of benefits from woods

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Well-being and quality of life Well-being for all? Social distribution of benefits from woods(PDF-170K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

FES Community Engagement Health Check

Legacy socio-economic research summary relating to: Community diversity, coherence and development FES Community Engagement Health Check(PDF-174KB) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Woodland based-social enterprise

Legacy socio-economic research summary relating to: Community diversity, coherence and development Woodland based-social enterprise(PDF-186KB) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Citizen science and social media

Legacy socio-economic research summary relating to: Community diversity, coherence and development Citizen science and social media(PDF-197KB) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

MOTIVE

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Governance MOTIVE(PDF-218KB) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Increasing timber production from small private woodlands in England: effectiveness of initiatives

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Governance Increasing timber production from small private woodlands in England: effectiveness of initiatives(PDF-243KB) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Local Authorities in Scotland

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Governance Local Authorities in Scotland(PDF-191KB) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Social and Economic Analyses of Dothistroma Needle Blight Management

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Governance Social and Economic Analyses of Dothistroma Needle Blight Management(PDF-131KB) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Behavioural Economics review

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Economic research Behavioural Economics review(PDF-116KB) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Policy 'nudges' to encourage woodland creation

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Economic research Policy ‘nudges’ to encourage woodland creation(PDF-174KB) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

FR_Edwards_CSGN_2010_Survey_Summary_2014.pdf

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Evaluation and appraisal FR_Edwards_CSGN_2010_Survey_Summary_2014.pdf(PDF-142KB) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

WIAT Evaluation

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Evaluation and appraisal WIAT Evaluation(PDF-233KB) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Scotland's Native Woodlands: Results from the Native Woodland Survey of Scotland

The Native Woodland Survey of Scotland (NWSS), carried out between 2006 and 2013 has provided the first authoritative picture of Scotland’s native woodlands. It used field survey to identify the location, type, extent, composition and condition of all native and nearly native woods, as well as woods planted on ancient woodland sites (PAWS). This report […]

Trees and the Scottish Enlightenment - A learning resource for teachers

Trees and the Scottish Enlightenment is an introduction to the Enlightenment and the beginnings of modern forestry.

Insights from behavioural economics for ecosystem services valuation and sustainability

Ecosystem services refer to the benefits or outputs that people derive from ecosystems. Following the publication of the UK National Ecosystem Assessment there has been a growing interest in assessing the flows of such services and valuing the contribution they make to human well-being. This Research Report draws upon recent evidence (years 2001 to 2012) […]

Decision Support Systems uptake

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Evaluation and appraisal Decision Support Systems uptake(PDF124k) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

A future with broadleaved trees

A strategy for the improvement of broadleaved trees in Britain and Ireland   The nations’ broadleaved trees, such as oak, chestnut, ash and birch, are important economically, socially and environmentally. Forest Research, Future Trees Trust and Earth Trust have jointly produced a strategy to improve Britain’s and Ireland’s broadleaved trees. The strategy, ‘A future with […]

Expanding woodlands in Special Protection Areas for golden eagles

Golden eagles are primarily birds of open mountain country but they can use open woodland habitats and may benefit from prey species which use woodlands. In 2010 a suite of six new Special Protection Areas (SPAs) covering 360,000 ha were designated by the Scottish Government for the conservation of golden eagles, adding to the existing […]

Forestry Facts & Figures 2013

This booklet contains a summary of statistics about woodland and forestry.Please note – the printed version of this document is an A2 sheet folded to A6. The PDF of the document is set to print at A3 therefore some of the pages will appear upside down.

A framework for sharing experiences of community woodland groups

Community woodland groups are growing, and there are now over 650 groups in England, Scotland and Wales. The rise is the result of both social pressure and changes in policy. Groups are keen to learn from each other’s experiences, and policy stakeholders seek evidence of the effectiveness of past and current policy. While some experiences […]

Monitoring the oak processionary moth with Pheromone traps

The oak processionary moth is a serious forestry pest that is capable of causing complete defoliation of oak trees. Its caterpillars are also a hazard to health. Breeding populations of the moth were discovered for the first time in the UK in London in 2006 and these initial infestations have since spread and the moth […]

[Archive] Forestry Commission Annual Report and Accounts: GB and England 2012 - 2013

The report is available to download here or to buy in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

[Archive] Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2012-2013

This report is available to download here or to order in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

[Archive] Corporate Plan 2013-14: Forestry Commission England

A new woodland culture: trees for the good of our economy, people and the environment.

[Archive] Corporate Plan 2013-14: Forestry Commission Cross Border Activities

This Corporate Plan sets out how the Forestry Commission will deliver its cross border functions.

Wolf Brother's Wildwoods

Imagining Mesolithic life in Scotland's forests and woodlands: an outdoor learning resource for teachers of Curriculum for Excellence Level 2. This resource has been produced to support teachers who are reading the novel Wolf Brother by Michelle Paver with their classes. Set in Mesolithic times, the novel is not only an exciting read but also […]

Species preference of small mammals for direct-sown tree and shrub seeds

Direct seeding can be a useful method for creating new woodland on former agricultural sites. However, the success of the technique is variable when it is used to restore conifer plantation sites to native species. Seed predation by small mammals, particularly the wood mouse, has been identified as a factor potentially limiting success. Small mammals […]

Modelling ecological networks and dispersal in grey squirrels

Understanding the role of the landscape matrix in species dispersal is important when targeting conservation and management strategies. This Research Note shows how least-cost modelling was used to assess invasive grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis dispersal movements within the UK, with a focus on the county of Cumbria. Two major networks were identified separated by the […]

Ash dieback disease - Pest Alert

Ash dieback is a disease of ash trees caused by a fungus called Chalara fraxinea. The disease causes leaf loss and crown dieback in affected trees and it may lead to tree death. This Pest Alert provides information on distribution, symptoms, how the disease spreads and what you can do to help, as well as […]

Asian longhorn beetle - Pest Alert

The Asian longhorn beetle, a native to China and southeast Asia, is an invasive pest of trees in Britain. The larvae of the beetle feed on the wood of a wide range of broadleaved trees, which causes damage and will ultimately kill affected trees. The beetle has caused extensive damage to trees where it has […]

Air temperature regulation by urban trees and green infrastructure

A well-known effect of urbanisation is the warming of the local climate relative to surrounding rural areas, creating a phenomenon known as the ‘urban heat island’ (UHI). UHI intensity varies across a city and over time, but temperature differences may reach 9 °C in the UK. Factors that contribute to a UHI include the thermal […]

Assessing the Effectiveness of Deer Management Grants in the East of England

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Governance Assessing the Effectiveness of Deer Management Grants in the East of England(PDF-100KB) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Recreational Use of Forests and Wildlife Interactions

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Governance Recreational Use of Forests and Wildlife Interactions (PDF-224KB) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from forest civil engineering

The management of forests and woodlands requires an effective road network to provide access for the machinery required to plant and harvest trees and extract timber and wood products. Roads are also used by visitors for access and activities such as cycling and mountain biking. Forest roads and bridges must be constructed so that they […]

Managing public safety on harvesting sites

Everyone involved in forestry work has health and safety duties and responsibilities. This Practice Note provides guidance to help landowners, forest managers and forestry practitioners manage public safety on harvesting sites. Forest operations are high-risk activities, and the management issues involved in harvesting and hauling timber while maintaining public access to forests and woodlands can […]

Minimising the impact of the great spruce bark beetle

The great spruce bark beetle is found in forests throughout continental Europe. It damages spruce trees by tunnelling into the bark of the living trees to lay its eggs under the bark. The developing larvae feed on the inner woody layers, which weakens, and in some cases may kill, the tree. The beetle was first […]

Choosing Sitka spruce planting stock

Over 90% of the Sitka spruce planted in Britain today is from ‘improved’ planting stock, which is predicted to produce around 25% more timber at final rotation, compared with material imported from the Pacific North West. Forest managers have a choice of improved stock: seedlings raised from seed collected in orchards established around 25 years […]

Economic benefits of greenspace

A substantial body of literature, including government policies, acknowledges the important role of greenspace in sustainable development and the creation of attractive and economically vibrant communities. Greenspace refers to the natural environmental components (green and blue spaces) that lie within and between a region’s cities, towns and villages. This Research Report provides a critical review […]

Fence marking to reduce grouse collisions

Collisions with fences can be a significant source of mortality for woodland birds such as capercaillie and black grouse. The construction of new fencing to protect woodland and trees in habitats supporting these two grouse species should be minimised, and the fences removed as soon as management objectives have been achieved. Fences that are necessary […]

Biosecurity - good working practice for those involved in forestry

The Forestry Commission has produced guidance on biosecurity measures and good working practice for the forestry sector. This guidance is for anyone who works for, or carries out official duties on behalf of, the Forestry Commission. The booklet details practical steps designed to minimise the risk of introducing or spreading pests and diseases. It includes […]

Social media and forestry: A scoping report

Scoping report to help inform thinking about the value of social media to the Forestry Commission, how it can be more effectively utilised and what objectives and policy goals it can be used to help achieve and so provide a basis for identifying specific future research needs to support the Forestry Commission’s ongoing implementation of, […]

Potential for woodland restoration above the A83 in Glen Croe to reduce the incidence of water erosion and debris flows

By Bill Rayner and Bruce Nicoll This assessment was instigated by Forestry Commission Scotland, with the aim of appraising the suitability of the hill watershed directly above the A83 at the ‘Rest and Be Thankful’ in Glen Croe for tree planting and the potential for the trees and shrubs to reduce the incidence of debris […]

Forestry Facts & Figures 2012

This booklet contains a summary of statistics about woodland and forestry.Please note – the printed version of this document is an A2 sheet folded to A6. The PDF of the document is set to print at A3 therefore some of the pages will appear upside down.

Recreational use of forests and disturbance of wildlife

Forests are popular places for recreation, but some activities can have negative impacts on wildlife. Land managers have to balance delivery of the social and economic benefits derived from outdoor recreation with nature conservation objectives. This literature review provides an overview of potential disturbance issues and a guide to the evidence on impacts from walking, […]

Marginal abatement cost curves for UK forestry

Comparing the cost-effectiveness of different climate change mitigation measures is essential in minimising the cost of meeting national greenhouse gas reduction targets. The costs of different measures and their potential to reduce emissions or sequester greenhouse gases can be depicted using a Marginal Abatement Cost Curve. Previous studies have shown that UK forestry measures are […]

25-year forecast of softwood timber availability

This Inventory Report is one of a series of publications reporting the outputs of the Forestry Commission National Forest Inventory. It forms part of the 25-year forecast of softwood availability series, which includes the following reports:• Standing timber volume for coniferous trees in Britain• 25-year forecast of softwood timber availability• 25-year forecast of standing coniferous […]

Community forest governance

This publication has been archived. To access it please follow the links to view on the DEFRA archive. A review of existing literature and research evidence on the range of existing community engagement, governance and ownership arrangements for managing forests in England and beyond (namely Scotland, Wales, Europe and North America). By Anna Lawrence and […]

[Archive] Forestry Commission Annual Report and Accounts: GB and England 2011 - 2012

The report is available to download here or to buy in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

Understanding the carbon and greenhouse gas balance of forests in Britain

Forests and woodlands represent a substantial stock of carbon that is contained in soil, trees and other vegetation. They are a key component of the global carbon cycle and their effective management, at both global and regional scales, is an important mechanism for reducing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Understanding what determines the size of […]

[Archive] Corporate Plan 2012-13: Forestry Commission England

This Corporate Plan discusses how Forestry Commission England are protecting, improving and expanding England’s woodlands to increase their value to society, the environment and the economy.

Public access to woodlands and forests

A review of existing literature on public access. By By Star Molteno, Jake Morris and Liz O’Brien. Related pages People, trees and woodlands Social forestry research

[Archive] Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2011-2012

This report is available to download here or to order in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

[Archive] Corporate Plan 2012-13: Forestry Commssion Great Britain

This Corporate Plan commits the Forestry Commission, through its GB work, to ensure that the nation’s trees and woodlands contribute to a sustainable green economy. In addition, the plan will support delivery of three of Defra’s Structural Reform priorities.

Standing timber volume for coniferous trees in Britain

This Inventory Report is one of a series of publications reporting the outputs of the Forestry Commission National Forest Inventory. It forms part of the 25-year forecast of softwood availability series, which includes the following reports:• Standing timber volume for coniferous trees in Britain• 25-year forecast of softwood timber availability• 25-year forecast of standing coniferous […]

Understanding private landmanager decision-making: A framework for forestry

This report synthesises substantial research relating to private land-management, including previous work by Forest Research. Drawing on both primary and secondary sources, it describes a Framework within which to understand the influences upon land-manager decision-making. By Norman Dandy. Related pages People, trees and woodlands Social forestry research

Trees, people and the built environment - Proceedings of the Urban Trees Research Conference 13-14 April 2011

Our urban forests, the trees and woodlands in and around our towns and cities, provide numerous environmental, economic and social benefits. As the most important single component of green infrastructure these trees have a vital role to play in promoting sustainable communities. In April 2011, for the first time in Britain, the relevant professional bodies […]

Dothistroma needle blight - Field guide 2012

Sampling guidance, symptoms and further information.

Natural regeneration in western hemlock plantations on ancient woodland sites

During the 20th century large areas of ancient semi-natural woodland were converted to conifer plantations, creating sites now termed PAWS (Plantations on Ancient Woodland Sites). Restoration of these sites to native woodland is a current objective of forestry policy throughout Great Britain. Natural regeneration is often regarded as the preferred method for restocking PAWS but […]

The United Kingdom Wood Packaging Material Marking Programme

This leaflet sets out the obligations of manufacturers, repairers, recyclers and others involved in the wood packaging material sector under the United Kingdom Wood Packaging Material Marking Programme.

Managing trees for safety

This is one of three new publications that have been produced by the Forestry Commission for the National Tree Safety Group. The three documents provide guidance on trees and public safety in the UK for owners, managers and advisers. Managing trees for safety is a leaflet for tree owners to help them understand the issues […]

Common sense risk management of trees - landowner summary

This is one of three new publications that have been produced by the Forestry Commission for the National Tree Safety Group. The three documents provide guidance on trees and public safety in the UK for owners, managers and advisers. This landowner summary document provides a summary of the full guidance document – Common sense risk […]

Common sense risk management of trees

This is one of three new publications that have been produced by the Forestry Commission for the National Tree Safety Group. The three documents provide guidance on trees and public safety in the UK for owners, managers and advisers. This main document provides guidance for inspecting and maintaining trees; guidance that is reasonable and proportionate […]

Salt damage to trees

Pathology Advisory Note 11 Describes the symptoms of damage caused by de-icing salt. This document details signs and symptoms of the named tree pest(s) or disease(s) and provides advice on what to do if you suspect the pest or disease is present. Related pages Research and advice on tree pests and diseases Tree Health Diagnostic […]

Biodiversity in fragmented landscapes

Maintaining species’ movement around landscapes is considered important if we are to conserve populations of many species and help them adapt to climate change. Particular features in the landscape have the potential to hinder or facilitate species movement. As each species interacts with the landscape differently, it can be hard to extract general patterns to […]

Forestry Facts & Figures 2011

This booklet contains a summary of statistics about woodland and forestry.Please note – the printed version of this document is an A2 sheet folded to A6. The PDF of the document is set to print at A3 therefore some of the pages will appear upside down.

UK - India forest landscape restoration

As part of a UK–India collaboration on forestry, this summary report shows how Forest Landscape Restoration can safeguard biodiversity by taking a landscape approach using appropriate technologies and practical applications and produce real benefi ts for communities by working in partnership with them. Edited by Mike Smith (Forest Research) and Sandeep Tripathi (India Forest Research […]

Environmental effects of stump and root harvesting

The removal of tree stumps and coarse roots from felling sites as a source of woody biomass for bioenergy generation is well established in parts of Europe, and interest has been expressed in replicating this practice in some regions of the UK. Overseas research shows that stump harvesting can pose a risk to sustainable forest […]

Human dimensions of adaptive forest management and climate change

Adaptive forest management is a systematic process for continually improving forest management, in conditions of complexity and uncertainty, by learning from the outcomes of experiments and operational practice. Adaptive management has often been proposed as a suitable approach for dealing with uncertainty and complexity in natural systems, particularly in relation to climate change.Some of the […]

A review of the Forest Education Initiative in Britain

This 2011 review looks at the history and development of the Forest Education Initiative, its governance structure, funding procedures and the activities and members of the cluster groups. By Liz O’Brien and Rebecca Lovell.

Woodland-related social enterprise: enabling factors and barriers to success

Report from project to examine the barriers and challenges facing different types and models of woodland-related social enterprise and to investigate the critical enabling factors affecting them. By Amy Stewart (July 2011). See alsoExecutive summary(PDF-337K) Related pages People, trees and woodlands Social forestry research

[Archive] Forestry Commission Annual Report and Accounts: GB and England 2010 - 2011

The report is available to download here or to buy in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

Public engagement and forestry: key lessons for working in urban areas

Research report providing information about three case studies in England (Sherwood Forest, Nottinghamshire), Wales (Craig Y Dinas, South Wales), and Scotland (Bishop’s Estate, Glasgow) that show how a variety of public engagement processes were implemented and what the outcomes of including people were in different urban contexts. By Paul Tabbush and Bianca Ambrose-Oji. Related pages […]

Principles of public engagement

Research report that synthesises the different principles involved in planning public engagement around forestry and woodland decision making or service delivery, characterises successful processes and outlines core values. By Paul Tabbush and Bianca Ambrose-Oji. Related pages People, trees and woodlands Social forestry research

The future of the Public Forest Estate in England

Analysis of responses to the suspended Public Consultation January-February 2011. By Anna Lawrence and Matthew Jollands.

International comparisons of forest policy

This publication has been archived. To access it please follow the links to view on the DEFRA archive. A review of forest policy and instruments in five countries (namely Sweden, Ohio/USA, New Zealand, Denmark and North Rhine-Westphalia/Germany) By Anna Lawrence and Mike Dudley.

The forgotten forest: the story of Whitelee Forest in the 20th Century

This is the story of forestry in and around Whitelee Forest, based on the memory of those who lived and work in forestry, knitted together from personal recollections.

Tanau Gwyllt yng Nghymru - Crynodeb Gweithredol

(Wildfires in Wales – Executive Summary). Summary of this project that sought to characterise and understand the problem of wildfires in the South Wales Valleys region and to offer recommendations for appropriate management and policy responses. By Matthew Jollands, Jake Morris and Andy Moffat. Related pages People, trees and woodlands Social forestry research

Wildfires in Wales - Final Report

Final report from this project that sought to characterise and understand the problem of wildfires in the South Wales Valleys region and to offer recommendations for appropriate management and policy responses. May 2011. By Matthew Jollands, Jake Morris and Andy Moffat. Related pages People, trees and woodlands Social forestry research

Wildfires in Wales - Executive Summary

Executive summary of this project that sought to characterise and understand the problem of wildfires in the South Wales Valleys region and to offer recommendations for appropriate management and policy responses. By Matthew Jollands, Jake Morris and Andy Moffat. Related pages People, trees and woodlands Social forestry research

Volunteering and Forestry Commission Wales: Scope, opportunities, and barriers

Report providing scoping evidence and information needed to understand current volunteering activity and opportunities and barriers to using volunteers as a consequence of the legal and any other pertinent issues as it applies in Wales. April 2011. By: Bianca Ambrose-Oji. Related pages People, trees and woodlands Social forestry research

Volunteering in and for Scotland’s forests

Report investigating the current opportunities for volunteering, where and how these operate and any barriers to developing volunteering or offering further opportunities. April 2011. By: Liz O’Brien and Mariella Marzano. Related pages People, trees and woodlands Social forestry research

[Archive] Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2010-2011

This report is available to download here or to order in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

[Archive] Corporate Plan 2011-15: Forestry Commission England

This Corporate Plan sets out how the Forestry Commission will deliver its cross border functions.

[Archive] Corporate Plan 2011-15: Forestry Commission Great Britain

This Corporate Plan sets out how the Forestry Commission will deliver its cross border functions.

Wood properties and uses of Sitka spruce in Britain

Sitka spruce is the main conifer species grown in Great Britain and the commercial wood products industry is primarily based on this species. Wood from Sitka spruce is sawn into timber for use in construction, pallets/packaging and fencing, and is also used in the production of paper and panel products. Research into the wood properties […]

Health benefits of street trees

Review of recent evidence of health benefits provided by street trees with special attention given to the economic estimates of such benefits. By Vadims Sarajevs. Related pages People, trees and woodlands Social forestry research

Costs and revenues of transformation to continuous cover forestry

Study modelling silvicultural options with Sitka spruce showing how transformation to continuous cover forestry can be a good economic option compared with clearfelling and replanting. This is accompanied by an Analysis spreadsheet (MS Excel®-3813K) that enables practitioners and policy makers to change input costs, product specifications, roadside prices and the discount rate to suit their […]

Forests and carbon: a review of additionality

Additionality is a core aspect of quality assurance of greenhouse gas emissions reduction and sequestration activities, being used in a climate change context to mean net abatement over and above that which would have arisen anyway in the absence of a given activity or project. The underlying rationale of is to distinguish activities which further […]

Street tree valuation systems

Street trees and urban woodlands provide a number of environmental and social benefits, including contributing to climate change adaptation and mitigation and providing urban green space. This Note presents the results of a review of three approaches to estimating the amenity value of street trees: CAVAT, Helliwell and i-Tree.

Managing forests for white-tailed eagles

White-tailed eagles (sea eagles) were re-introduced to Scotland from the 1970s and there are now over 50 breeding pairs. They frequently nest and roost in woodlands and tend to use habitual nest sites. The species has a high degree of legal protection, and woodland managers need to plan operations carefully to avoid disturbing the birds […]

Forests and carbon: valuation, discounting and risk management

Carbon valuation, discounting and risk management are important in ensuring that effective incentives are put in place to tackle climate change, and in comparing the relative merits of climate mitigation activities over time. Approaches applied in different contexts, including in relation to permanence issues, are reviewed in order to help inform development by the Forestry […]

The potential for Eucalyptus as a wood fuel in the UK. Applied Energy

Leslie, A.D., Mencuccini, M. & Perks, M.P. (2011). The potential for Eucalyptus as a wood fuel in the UK. Applied Energy, 89, 176-182.

Short rotation forestry: review of growth and environmental impacts

By Helen McKay (Ed.) This review updates the Hardcastle review (2006) of the environmental impacts of growing fastgrowing broadleaved species as short rotation forestry in Britain and where possible strengthens it using primary unpublished data. Forest Research Monograph: 2ISBN 978-0-85538-827-0

Woodland for Water: Woodland measures for meeting Water Framework Directive objectives

This report considers the key issues relating to woodland and the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in England and Wales, but has application to Scotland and Northern Ireland. By Tom Nisbet, Martyn Silgram, Nadeem Shah, Katrina Morrow & Samantha Broadmeadow. Forest Research Monograph: 4ISBN 978-0-85538-830-0 Related pages Forest hydrology Soil sustainability

Thinning practice - a silvicultural guide

The underlying silvicultural principles which make up good thinning practice and guidance on applying thinning in the most common situations of forest management. By Gary Kerr and Jens Haufe. Related pages Continuous cover silviculture Integrated establishment systems for the uplands Management of upland native woodlands Woodland and habitat management publications

Access for all? Barriers to accessing woodlands in the UK?

Legacy socio-economic research relating to: Well-being and quality of life Access for all? Barriers to accessing woodlands in the UK? (PDF-77K) Access our current and recent socio-economic research.

Woods and forests in British society: progress in research and practice

By Bianca Ambrose-Oji and Karen Fancett (Eds.). Papers presented at the Trees and Forests in British society conference in April 2010. Forest Research Monograph: 3ISBN 978-0-85538-828-7 Related pages People, trees and woodlands Social forestry research

External timber cladding: design, installation and performance

This publication is the result of extensive research, testing and detail development and provides the reader with evidence based information on the use of external timber cladding and how to respond to the contradictory demands of moisture control and fire…

Management of ancient wood pasture

This guidance note provides an introduction to the restoration and management of ancient wood pastures in Scotland. It is aimed at land managers, their advisers and agency staff involved in land management and grant assessment. It has also been developed to help applicants to the Scottish Rural Development Programmedeliver the ‘Management of Ancient Wood Pasture’ […]

Public engagement in forestry: a toolbox for public engagement in forest and woodland planning

This toolbox revises the previous edition – 'Involving people in forestry: a toolbox for public involvement in forest and woodland planning' which was published in 2004. The toolbox provides information and ideas to forest and woodland managers on ways to engage individuals, communities and organisations in the decision-making process, design and management of forestry projects […]

Opportunity mapping for woodland to reduce flooding in the Yorkshire and the Humber region

By Samantha Broadmeadow and Tom Nisbet. Research report to Forestry Commission England, March 2009. Forest Research Monograph: 1ISBN 978-0-85538-822-5 Related pages Forest hydrology Soil sustainability

Respacing naturally regenerating Sitka spruce and other conifers

Dense natural regeneration of Sitka spruce and other conifers is an increasingly common feature of both recently clearfelled sites and stands managed under continuous cover forestry in upland forests of the British Isles. This regeneration can be managed by combining natural self-thinning in the early stages of standestablishment with management intervention to cut access racks […]

Lifestyle, identity and young people’s experiences of mountain biking

This Research Note summarises in-depth research conducted with young people as part of the Active England project at Bedgebury Forest, Kent.

National inventory of woodland and trees (1995-99): methodology

This publication details the methodology behind the production of the National Inventory between 1995 and 1999.

Benefits of green infrastructure - summary report

A Summary Report by Forest Research providing evidence on the positive benefits which green infrastructure brings to society. A Technical Report is also available: Benefits of green infrastructure. By Land Regeneration and Urban Greenspace, Centre for Forestry and Climate Change.

Benefits of green infrastructure

An in-depth technical report by Forest Research providing a synthesis of the evidence on the positive benefits which green infrastructure brings to society. A summary report is also available: Benefits of green infrastructure – summary report. By Land Regeneration and Urban Greenspace, Centre for Forestry and Climate Change.  

Understanding the greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of forestry on peat soils in Scotland

Understanding the consequences of forestry activity on peat soil organic carbon (SOC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) balance. Report compiled by Forest Research for Forestry Commission Scotland, September 2010. By James Morison et al. Related pages Climate change research

Transforming Even-aged Conifer Stands to Continuous Cover Management - Field sheet

Related pages Continuous cover silviculture Integrated establishment systems for the uplands Management of upland native woodlands Woodland and habitat management publications

Learning from monitoring and evaluation – a blueprint for an adaptive organisation

Report setting out principles for learning from social forestry monitoring and evaluation within the Forestry Commission and its partners. By Jake Morris and Anna Lawrence. Related pages People, trees and woodlands Social forestry research

Uptake of decision support systems in the forestry sector in Great Britain

Understanding the factors affecting the uptake of Decision Support Systems in the GB forestry sector and how these can be addressed to enhance and improve uptake. Scoping Report, September 2010. By Amy Stewart,Anna Lawrence and David Edwards. Related pages People, trees and woodlands Social forestry research

Forestry Facts and Figures 2010

A summary of statistics about woodland and forestry

Ffeithiau a Ffigurau Coedwigaeth 2010

Crynodeb o Ystadegau Ynglyn a Choetiroedd a Choedwigoedd

Climate change: impacts and adaptation in England's woodlands

The changing climate presents a challenge for forest planning and forest management in England because the projected increases in temperature, changes in the seasonality of rainfall, and an increased frequency of extreme events add complexity to species selection and silvicultural practice. By actively adjusting forest management now, to anticipate future changes, we can hope to […]

The impact of forests and forest management on slope stability

Can continuous cover forestry management improve slope stability? By Victoria Stokes. Internal report to the Forestry Commission, 2011. Related pages Continuous cover silviculture Integrated establishment systems for the uplands Management of upland native woodlands Woodland and habitat management publications

Opportunity mapping for woodland creation to reduce diffuse sediment and phosphate pollution in the Lake District

By Samantha Broadmeadow and Tom Nisbet. Research Report July 2010. Related pages Forest hydrology Soil sustainability

Opportunity mapping for woodland to reduce flooding in the River Derwent, Cumbria

By Samantha Broadmeadow and Tom Nisbet. Research report to Forestry Commission England, March 2009. Related pages Forest hydrology Soil sustainability

Landowners’ attitudes to woodland creation and management in the UK: A review of evidence in the UK

What does existing evidence tell us about landowners’ values, attitudes and knowledge in relation to decisions about woodland management and creation?. By Anna Lawrence, Norman Dandy and Julie Urquhart. Summary report (PDF-443K)

[Archive] Forestry Commission Annual Report and Accounts: GB and England 2009 - 2010

The report is available to download here or to buy in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

Dutch Elm disease – Q&A

Pathology Advisory Note 10 Answers to common questions. This document details signs and symptoms of the named tree pest(s) or disease(s) and provides advice on what to do if you suspect the pest or disease is present. Related pages Dutch elm disease resources page Tree Health Diagnostic and Advisory Service

Place-making and communities: A review of concepts, indicators, policy and practice

Exploring the UK government (including forestry-related) usage and definitions of terms or concepts related to the social and community benefits that can potentially be realised through accessible provision of green space, including woods and trees. October 2010. By Amy Stewart.

Place-making and communities: Inventory of social evidence and practical programmes relating to trees, woods and forests and urban/peri-urban regeneration, place-making and place-shaping

Report that identifies key evidence themes and evidence gaps and urban regeneration, place-shaping and making programmes in Great Britain in which trees have played the fundamental role. October 2010. By Amy Stewart and Liz O’Brien.

Restoring afforested peat bogs: results of current research

The value of peat bogs as open habitats and stores of carbon may be lost if they are planted with trees. The number of bogs being restored is increasing but still modest in scale relative to the area of afforested peatland. Research is currently being carried out to determine the feasibility and methodology for restoring […]

[Archive] Corporate Plan 2010-11: Forestry Commission Great Britain

This Corporate Plan sets out how the Forestry Commission will improve how it works to ensure that it is an efficient, effective and sustainable organisation.

Cultural value of trees, woods and forests - Executive Summary

Summary from study that explored how cultural values are identified, explored and taken into account in forest planning and decision-making processes. You may also download the full report(PDF-438K) here. By Paul Tabbush.

Review of research evidence in relation to the role of trees and woods in formal education and learning

Final report from study to identify and explore research relating to education and learning outdoors. A particular focus of the review was on learning that takes place in woods as well as learning that focuses on trees and woods. By Rebecca Lovell and Liz O’Brien and Roz Owen.

Oak pinhole borer

Tree Pest Advisory Note Wood boring beetle Platypus cylindrus that infests and breeds in cut trees, windblown trees, standing dead and dying trees. Revised: April 2010. This document details signs and symptoms of the named tree pest(s) or disease(s) and provides advice on what to do if you suspect the pest or disease is present. […]

Evaluation of the Neroche Landscape Partnership Scheme

Evaluation report that provides a detailed account of how the scheme ran and evidence of the impacts it had on a range of partners, participants and members of the surrounding local communities and that draws out key insights and lessons learnt from the scheme’s governance structure and processes. By Claudia Carter, Liz O’Brien and Jake […]

[Archive] Choice of Douglas fir seed sources for use in British forests

Douglas fir plays a particular role in the production of quality timber and is also important for other multipurpose forestry uses. Due to the extent of its natural range in Pacific north-west America, a range of material from natural populations and tree improvement programmes has been evaluated in field trials to identify the most well-adapted […]

[Archive] Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2009-2010

This report is available to download here or to order in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

[Archive] Corporate Plan 2010-11: Forestry Commission England

This Corporate Plan sets out clearly how Forestry Commission England will help to deliver a number of the Government’s public service agreements while also adapting to a new and challenging operating environment.

Social diversity in the forestry profession

Research report into employing a social marketing approach to investigating and planning interventions designed to change the behaviour of people looking for work. Specifically, the application behaviour of Black, Asian and minority ethnic candidates in future Forestry Commission recruitments, to see increasing numbers of applications from them. By Bianca Ambrose-Oji. Related pages People, trees and […]

The social and cultural values, and governance, of street trees

Climate change and street trees project – Social Research Report. Understanding the social and cultural values associated with street trees in the urban environment and the governance context in which decisions about their management are made. By Norman Dandy. Related pages People, trees and woodlands Social forestry research

Cultural value of trees, woods and forests

Final report from study that explored how cultural values are identified, explored and taken into account in forest planning and decision-making processes. Also: Executive summary (PDF-438K) By Paul Tabbush. The Active England programme aimed to increase community participation in sport and physical activity across England. Forest Research contributed to the monitoring and evaluation of five […]

Modelling supply and demand of bioenergy from short rotation coppice and miscanthus in the UK

Biofuels 1, 719-727.Bauen A.W., Dunnett, A.J., Richter, G.M., Dailey, A.G., Aylott, M., Casella, E. & Taylor, G. (2010). Modelling supply and demand of bioenergy from short rotation coppice and miscanthus in the UK. Bioresource Technology 101, 8132-8143.

Estimating the supply of biomass from short-rotation coppice in England, given social, economic and environmental constraints to land availability

Aylott M.J., Casella E. , Farrall K. & Taylor G. (2010). Estimating the supply of biomass from short-rotation coppice in England, given social, economic and environmental constraints to land availability.

Calibration and validation of a simplified process-based model for the prediction of the carbon balance of Scottish Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) plantations

Minunno, F., Xenakis, G., Perks, M.P. & Mencuccini, M. (2010). Calibration and validation of a simplified process-based model for the prediction of the carbon balance of Scottish Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) plantations. Canadian Journal Forest Research, 40, 2411-2426.

Trees and forests in British society - Ten years of social science

How Forest Research social and economic scientists have explored what Britain’s trees and woodlands mean to people, how they are used and how they can contribute to the social and cultural life of the country. Trees and forests in British society – Ten years of social science (PDF-1742K) Over the past 15 or so years, […]

Estimating visitor and visit numbers to woodlands (2010 report)

Final report that sets out the different methods that have and can be used by forest managers and practitioners to estimate visitor, visit and total numbers of visits to woodlands. This report builds on guidance on visitor monitoring produced by the Forestry Commission Economic and Statistics Group. By Liz O’Brien and Jake Morris.

Urban health and health inequalities and the role of urban forestry in Britain: A review

This literature review (2010) explores urban health issues and health inequalities and identifies the links between trees, woods and forests and health in urban populations. It outlines current gaps in research and identifies potential opportunities for the Forestry Commission in England, Scotland and Wales to focus on health and well-being in urban areas. By Liz […]

Social research and the Forestry Commission: Perceptions and applications

Report from study that addressed how the knowledge and understanding of social research affects policy, planning, practice and outcomes within the Forestry Commission. By Mariella Marzano, Anna Lawrence and Bianca Ambrose-Oji. Related pages People, trees and woodlands Social forestry research

Social benefits from the Forestry Commission public forest Estate in England: Review of current evidence

A review of the Forestry Commission's estate in England as part of a study to show how the estate contributes to society today and how it might sustainably serve society's long-term needs. By Anna Lawrence, Claudia Carter, Liz O’Brien and Rebecca Lovell. Related pages People, trees and woodlands Social forestry research

The Forestry Commission public forest estate in England: Social use, value and expectations (Summary)

Summary report of study to provide evidence of the public value of the Forestry Commission Public Forest Estate in England and establish whether people have different perceptions and expectations of publicly owned forests compared to those in other forms of ownership. By Anna Lawrence and Claudia Carter.

Social benefits from the Forestry Commission public forest estate in England: Review of current evidence

A review of the Forestry Commission's estate in England as part of a study to show how the estate contributes to society today and how it might sustainably serve society's long-term needs. By Anna Lawrence, Claudia Carter, Liz O’Brien and Rebecca Lovell.

The evidence supporting the use of continuous cover forestry in adapting Scotland’s forests to the risks of climate change

Report to Forestry Commission Scotland summarising the role of Continuous Cover Forestry in future climate conditions. By Victoria Stokes and Gary Kerr. Related pages Continuous cover silviculture Integrated establishment systems for the uplands Management of upland native woodlands Woodland and habitat management publications

The Forestry Commission public forest estate in England: Social use, value and expectations (Full report)

Final report from study to provide evidence of the public value of the Forestry Commission Public Forest Estate in England and establish whether people have different perceptions and expectations of publicly owned forests compared to those in other forms of ownership. By Claudia Carter, Anna Lawrence, Rebecca Lovell and Liz O’Brien.

Developing methods for assessing Scots pine timber quality

Timber production from Scots pine forests in Great Britain is forecast to increase over the next 15 years. This Research Note presents the results of a project to develop and test methods for assessing the quality of Scots pine timber from measurements on trees and logs. Six stands of Scots pine growing in the north […]

Practical techniques for surveying and monitoring squirrels

Practical surveying and monitoring techniques are essential for anyone involved in studying or managing squirrel populations in forests and woodland in Britain. Survey methods can be used to establish the presence of squirrels in a particular area and, if used systematically, can detect significant changes in the distribution or abundance of populations and species over […]

Using acoustic tools in forestry and the wood supply chain

The demands for sustainably produced wood as a raw material for a variety of end uses is placing increased pressure on the forest resource in the UK. Knowledge of the timber properties of trees and logs is important to ensure that harvested wood is directed to its most appropriate end use. Current harvesting practice in […]

Potential impacts of drought and disease on forestry in Scotland

This study identified 288 medium or high drought risk forest sites in eastern Scotland, 125 of which include Sitka spruce as a major component. Sitka spruce is intolerant of drought and is known to have previously experienced drought damage such as tree mortality and stem cracking in eastern Scotland. Cases of direct drought damage, together […]

Forestry facts and figures 2009

A summary of statistics about woodland and forestry

Ffeithiau a ffigurau'r coedwigaeth 2009

Crynodeb o ystadegau ynglyn a choetiroedd a choedwigoedd

Forestry Commission working with civil society

Report detailing Forestry Commission England engagement and partnership working with third sector and civil society organisations. This is being used to prepare an action plan for the joint agency Third Sector statement (Compact) as well as inform government reviews of departmental engagement with civil society. August 2010. By: Bianca Ambrose-Oji, Jenny Wallace, Anna Lawrence, and […]

[Archive] Forestry Commission Annual Report and Accounts: GB and England 2008 - 2009

The report is available to download here or to buy in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

Social 'barriers' to woodfuel production from farm woods

Presentation to the Farm Woodlands Forum (June 2009). Woodfuel – social and economic dimensions This publication is part a series of reports and presentations from research to understand the challenges of using trees, woods and forests in an effective woodfuel sector, how and why private woodlands owners produce woodfuel, what forms of partnerships are appropriate […]

Guidance on site selection for brash removal

By Tom Nisbet. Considers site selection for brash removal in upland conifer forests, with a focus on Sitka spruce stands.

Opportunity mapping for woodland creation to meet the objectives of the Water Framework Directive

Map-based case study to assess how woodland creation could be better targeted within catchments to locations where it would contribute most to maximising water and other benefits, while minimising risks. By Samantha Broadmeadow, Tom Nisbet, Martyn Silgram & Katrina Morrow. Final report to the Environment Agency and Forestry Commission England, May 2009. Related pages Forest […]

[Archive] Corporate Plan 2009-12: Forestry Commission Great Britain

This Corporate Plan sets out the Forestry Commission’s programme of work for its activities across Great Britain and the strategic direction that the Forestry Commission will take up to 2012.

Pine-tree lappet moth - Pest Alert

The pine-tree lappet moth has caused severe defoliation of Scots pine trees on many occasions in Eastern Europe. An initial assessment of the potential impact of the moth in Britain is that it presents a significant threat to the pine forests of northeast Scotland – and further afield if allowed to spread. This Pest Alert […]

Integrated remediation, reclamation and greenspace creation on brownfield land

An overview of how greenspace can be established and used in a sustainable regeneration context on brownfield land. By T.R. Hutchings, D. Sinnett, K.J. Doick, K. Pediaditi and A.J. Moffat. CL:AIRE SUBR:IM Bulletin 11 Contact Kieron Doick

Stump harvesting: Interim guidance on site selection and good practice

Guidance to assist the forest industry in identifying sites where stumps may be harvested without compromising long-term sustainability, and on any environmental safeguards that must be applied. Related pages Continuous cover silviculture Integrated establishment systems for the uplands Management of upland native woodlands Woodland and habitat management publications

Equality and inclusion of social diversity with respect to woods and forests in the UK: An evidence review

Research report summarising the available evidence of the impact of trees, woods and forests on different sections of British society. By Bianca Ambrose-Oji.

[Archive] Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2008-2009

This report is available to download here or to order in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

[Archive] Corporate Plan 2009-12: Forestry Commission England

This Corporate Plan sets out clearly how Forestry Commission England will help deliver a number of the Government’s public service agreements.

Factors influencing woodfuel production by private landowners: a scoping study in Fife

Presentation to the Farm Woodlands Forum (June 2009) Woodfuel – social and economic dimensions This publication is part a series of reports and presentations from research to understand the challenges of using trees, woods and forests in an effective woodfuel sector, how and why private woodlands owners produce woodfuel, what forms of partnerships are appropriate […]

Private landowners’ engagement with woodfuel production: a scoping study in Fife

Survey to discover the attitudes and actions of private landowners in relation to options for woodfuel production and use. Woodfuel – social and economic dimensions This publication is part a series of reports and presentations from research to understand the challenges of using trees, woods and forests in an effective woodfuel sector, how and why […]

Dutch elm disease diagnosis

Information sheet describing symptoms and how to confirm the diagnosis.

Greenhouse gas emissions from four bioenergy crops in England and Wales: Integrating spatial estimates of yield and soil carbon balance in life cycle analyses

Hillier, J., Whittaker, C., Dailey, G., Aylott, M., Casella, E., Richter, G.M., Riche, A., Murphy, R., Taylor, G. & Smith, P. (2009). Greenhouse gas emissions from four bioenergy crops in England and Wales: Integrating spatial estimates of yield and soil carbon balance in life cycle analyses.

Yield and spatial supply of bioenergy poplar and willow short rotation coppice in the UK

Aylott, M., Casella, E., Tubby, I., Street, N.R., Smith, P. & Taylor, G. (2008). Yield and spatial supply of bioenergy poplar and willow short rotation coppice in the UK. New Phytologist 178, 358-370. Corrigendum: 178, 897-897.

Active England evaluation: Great Western Community Forest

By Liz O’Brien and Jake Morris. The Active England programme aimed to increase community participation in sport and physical activity across England. Forest Research contributed to the monitoring and evaluation of five projects that focused on increasing activity levels in woodlands and greenspace.

Active England evaluation: Bedgebury National Pinetum and Forest

By Liz O’Brien and Jake Morris. The Active England programme aimed to increase community participation in sport and physical activity across England. Forest Research contributed to the monitoring and evaluation of five projects that focused on increasing activity levels in woodlands and greenspace.

Active England evaluation: Greenwood Community Forest

By Liz O’Brien and Jake Morris. The Active England programme aimed to increase community participation in sport and physical activity across England. Forest Research contributed to the monitoring and evaluation of five projects that focused on increasing activity levels in woodlands and greenspace.

Active England evaluation: Full report

Final report By Liz O’Brien and Jake Morris. The Active England programme aimed to increase community participation in sport and physical activity across England. Forest Research contributed to the monitoring and evaluation of five projects that focused on increasing activity levels in woodlands and greenspace.

Active England evaluation: Summary report

By Liz O’Brien and Jake Morris. The Active England programme aimed to increase community participation in sport and physical activity across England. Forest Research contributed to the monitoring and evaluation of five projects that focused on increasing activity levels in woodlands and greenspace.

Active England evaluation: Rosliston Forestry Centre

By Liz O’Brien and Jake Morris. The Active England programme aimed to increase community participation in sport and physical activity across England. Forest Research contributed to the monitoring and evaluation of five projects that focused on increasing activity levels in woodlands and greenspace.

Active England evaluation: Haldon Forest Park

By Liz O’Brien and Jake Morris. The Active England programme aimed to increase community participation in sport and physical activity across England. Forest Research contributed to the monitoring and evaluation of five projects that focused on increasing activity levels in woodlands and greenspace.

A valuation of the economic and social contribution of forestry for people in Scotland

This report presents the results of a comprehensive valuation of the current social and economic benefits of forestry, forests and woodlands in Scotland that are derived by the people of Scotland. The research was based upon a typology of seven ‘Forestry for People’ themes which were: employment and volunteering, contribution to the economy, recreation and […]

Planning for lowland habitat networks in Scotland: A landscape-scale approach

A synopsis of the Lowland Habitat Networks in Scotland report (below), including examples of how networks of non-wooded habitats and their integration in different landscape settings could benefit landscapes in the Scottish Lowlands. By Darren Moseley and Mike Smith. Full report: Developing lowland habitat networks in Scotland: Phase 2 (PDF-3207K) Related pages Habitat networks Landscape […]

Improving the ecological content of forest plans

A Case Study from Glen Affric – May 2008. Related pages Habitat networks Landscape ecology Integrated establishment systems for the uplands Lowland native woodlands Integrated forest vegetation management Management of upland native woodlands Silvicultural and woodland management practices publications Vegetation management publications Woodland establishment and regeneration publications

Stakeholder perceptions of short-rotation forestry for energy - Literature review

Research conducted in order to further understanding of the social viability of short-rotation forestry in the British landscape. Woodfuel – social and economic dimensions This publication is part a series of reports and presentations from research to understand the challenges of using trees, woods and forests in an effective woodfuel sector, how and why private […]

Offenders and nature - Policy into practice

Employment for ex-offenders: an innovative approach By Claudia Carter. Related pages People, trees and woodlands Social forestry research

TreeGeneration: A review of the urban forestry pilot project for North East Wales

Review of pilot project promoting a substantial increase in the planting of new trees and woodlands in urban environments in counties of Wrexham and Flintshire to determine the potential for a national urban forestry initiative for Wales. Related pages People, trees and woodlands Social forestry research

Forest Research: Climate change projects

Summary of our programme of climate change-related research. September 2008.

The economic and social contribution of forestry for people in Scotland - Summary report

Results of a research project aiming to provide a comprehensive valuation of the current social and economic benefits of Scottish forestry, forests and woodlands derived by the people of Scotland. By David Edwards, Jake Morris, Liz O’Brien, Vadims Sarajevs and Gregory Valatin. Forestry Commission Research Note 102. Related pages People, trees and woodlands Social forestry […]

The economic and social contribution of forestry for people in Scotland

This Research Note summarises the results of a two-year valuation of the current social and economic contribution of forestry, forests and woodlands to the people of Scotland.

Benefits of improved Sitka spruce: volume and quality of timber

The increase in timber volume gained from planting improved Sitka spruce stock has been estimated to be between 21% and 29% at the end of a rotation. This Research Note presents the results of new research designed to investigate the impact of improved Sitka spruce stock on quality characteristics which determine the quantity of green […]

Managing continuous cover forests

Practical guidance covering a flexible and adaptive approach and best advice on managing continuous cover. Forestry Commission Operational Guidance Booklet No. 7. Related pages Continuous cover silviculture Integrated establishment systems for the uplands Management of upland native woodlands Woodland and habitat management publications

Environmental volunteering: Motivations, barriers and benefits

Report to the Scottish Forestry Trust and Forestry Commission. By Liz O’Brien (Forest Research) and Mardie Townsend and Matthew Ebden (Deakin University, Australia). Environmental volunteering – Summary report (PDF-570K)

[Archive] Forestry Commission Annual Report and Accounts: GB and England 2007 - 2008

This report is available to download here or to buy in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

Impacts of climate change on forestry in Wales

Climate change is now one of the greatest global challenges, and research is under way to establish the likely impacts on many aspects of the environment. Forestry Commission Wales has commissioned Forest Research to determine how forests and forestry in Wales will be affected by climate change. This Research Note provides an initial synopsis of […]

Restoring floodplain woodland for flood alleviation

By Tom Nisbet and Huw Thomas. Final Report for Defra Project SLD2316 – a study designed to evaluate and demonstrate the contribution of floodplain woodland to flood alleviation. Related pages Forest hydrology Soil sustainability

Red band needle blight of conifers in Britain

Red band needle blight is an economically important disease affecting a number of coniferous trees, in particular pines. The disease has a world-wide distribution but until recently it was mainly of concern in the southern hemisphere. In much of the world, including Britain, it is caused by the fungus Dothistroma septosporum. Red band needle blight […]

The Environmental Change Network at Alice Holt Research Forest

The Environmental Change Network (ECN) was established in 1992 to provide a framework for monitoring the effects of a range of environmental drivers on freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems. The Alice Holt ECN site represents the Forestry Commission’s commitment to this long-term collaborative programme. This Research Note reviews data collected at the Alice Holt site over […]

Field portable X-ray fluorescence (FPXRF): A rapid and low cost alternative for measuring metals and metalloids in soils

By Caroline Kilbride, Jane Poole, Tony Hutchings, Olga Rodriguez-Walters, Danielle Sinnett, Andy Brunt and Andy Moffat. CL:AIRE Research Bulletin 7. What's of interest If your organisation has an interest in working with us on collaborative research related to greening brownfield or contaminated sites then please email: landrec@forestry.gsi.gov.uk Related pages Brownfield regeneration Urban greening

The use of compost in the regeneration of brownfield land

Integrated remediation and greening of urban greenspace using compost for the establishment of plant growth on remediated soils and the development of novel compost for the remediation of metal contaminated land. By R. van Herwijnen, G. Sellers, D. Sinnett, A.J. Moffat, T.R. Hutchings, A. Al-Tabbaa and S. Ouki. CL:AIRE SUBR:IM Bulletin 10 What's of interest […]

[Archive] Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2007-2008

This report is available to download here or to order in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

[Archive] Estimating deer abundance in woodlands: the combination plot technique

This Bulletin describes a technique for measuring deer abundance in woodlands. The technique is a variation of the faecal accumulation rate method and was developed and refined using data from more than ten years of monitoring and research by Strath Caulaidh Ltd. In justifying their choice of each element of the technique, the authors also […]

[Archive] Corporate Plan 2008-11: Forestry Commission England

This Corporate Plan sets out clearly how Forestry Commission England will help deliver the Government’s public service agreements on: mitigating dangerous climate change; securing a healthy natural environment; and improving quality of life.

[Archive] Corporate Plan 2008-11: Forestry Commission Great Britain

This Corporate Plan sets out the programme agreed with the Forestry Commission for those activities it carries out across Great Britain. It also describes the strategic direction that the Forestry Commission will take up to 2011, and how their activitiescontribute to a number of Government agendas.

[Archive] Forest habitat networks Scotland

By Darren Moseley, Duncan Ray, Kevin Watts & Jonathan Humphrey. Contract report to Forestry Commission Scotland, Forestry Commission GB and Scottish Natural Heritage.

Handbook on treatment of coal ash disposal sites

Guidelines for the management of established wet-disposed coal ash landfills. Produced by the RECOAL project – using social approaches in coal ash remediation. This examined the reintegration of coal ash disposal sites and mitigation of pollution in the West Balkan Area.

Surveys of woodland using LiDAR

Developments in remote sensing technology to reveal the historic environment by ‘seeing through’ the woodland canopy and its application in mapping, with direct relevance to forest management. By Peter Crow. Related pages Historic environment resources

Methuselah

A monitoring and evaluation strategy for urban greenspace. Contact Kieron Doick

Problems on plane trees

Pathology Advisory Note 7 Pathogens that could potentially be very damaging to Planes (Platanus spp.) in the UK. This document details signs and symptoms of the named tree pest(s) or disease(s) and provides advice on what to do if you suspect the pest or disease is present. Related pages Research and advice on tree pests […]

Impacts of climate change on forests in Scotland

Report compiled for Forestry Commission Scotland by Duncan Ray with sections also drafted by Dave Wainhouse, Joan Webber and Barry Gardiner.

Climate change: Impacts and adaptation in Scotland

By Duncan Ray Summary from Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2007-8. Related pages Climate change research

Payments for ecosystems services

Ecosystem services have traditionally been regarded as ‘free goods’ and there is a lack of incentives to protect them. Payments for Ecosystem Services attempt to rectify this, often through market mechanisms. The use of these schemes has become more widespread particularly in the USA and some developing countries. By Gregory Valatin (Forest Research) and Jenna […]

Impacts of climate change on forestry in Scotland – a synopsis of spatial modelling research

This Research Note provides an initial synopsis of the likely impacts, with preliminary recommendations to support development of a climate change action plan for forestry in Scotland.

National Inventory of Woodland and Trees 1995-1999: Analysis of Management and Biodiversity Data

This publication covers the management and biodiversity data collected during the first National Inventory of Woodland and Trees (NIWT1) that were not published with the main statistics on woodland area. Many of these data were collected for the first time during this National Inventory project.

[Archive] Greenspace establishment on brownfield land: the site selection and investigation process

This Information Note describes investigation of brownfield land for potential redevelopment into greenspace. Written for site owners, foresters, planners, managers and consultants, it gives step-by-step guidance on site selection and evaluation.

New pathways for health and well-being

Summary of research to understand and overcome barriers to accessing woodland By Sue Weldon and Cathy Bailey in collaboration with Liz O’Brien.

New pathways for health and well-being in Scotland

Research to understand and overcome barriers to accessing woodlands By Sue Weldon and Cathy Bailey in collaboration with Liz O’Brien.

[Archive] Forests and wood ants in Scotland

This Information Note provides information on the northern wood ant Formica lugubris, the Scottish wood ant Formica aquilonia and the narrow-headed ant Formica exsecta. Information is presented on the legal and conservation status, ecology, habitat requirements and management of these three species. The Note is aimed at a wide range of people with interests in […]

Forests and Climate Change

Archived Forestry Commission booklet discussing forests and climate change.

[Archive] Evaluating biodiversity in fragmented landscapes: the use of focal species

 This Information Note describes in more detail how profiles for species, both real and ‘generic, are used in such tools. Terminology describing the use of different species in ecological studies and landscape modelling is also defined.

Forestry Statistics 2007

Forestry Statistics is a compendium of statistical information about woodland, forestry and primary wood processing in the UK. Forestry Statistics is now published in web format only. The PDF available here contains the information from the original interactive web pages.

Cleaning mechanised pesticide spray equipment

This Technical Note sets out the procedures for cleaning pesticide applicators and proposes a cleaning regime drawn from current sources of best practice.

Ffeithiau a ffigurau'r coedwigaeth 2007

Crynodeb o Ystadegau Ynglyn a Choetiroedd a Choedwigoedd.

Forestry facts and figures 2007

A summary of statistics about woodland and forestry.

[Archive] Ten years of intensive environmental monitoring in British forests

This Information Note reviews the value of intensive monitoring and the light it has shed on important environmental and forestry policy issues. Examples are drawn from the range of Level II datasets to demonstrate the greater understanding that can be gained when evaluations consider how different environmental drivers and forest responses interact with one another, […]

[Archive] Resistance of young conifers to feeding damage by pine weevil

This Information Note describes the main resistance trait in young pine and spruce that affects feeding. Examples of weevil damage are illustrated as a guide to the recognition of resistant and susceptible trees in the field.

[Archive] Forestry Commission Annual Report and Accounts: GB and England 2006 - 2007

This report is available to download here or to buy in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

Managing the Pine Weevil on Lowland Pine

The pine weevil Hylobius abietis is a common cause of mortality in young conifers used to restock forest sites after clearfelling. This Practice Note looks at minimising the use of insecticides for the control of pine weevils by adopting an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approach.

[Archive] Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2006-2007

This report is available to download here or to order in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

[Archive] Choice of sitka spruce seed origins for use in British forests

The Bulletin summarises seed origin research in Sitka spruce over a period of 70 years. It provides a background to the ecology of the species, its introduction to Britain and the development and refinement of seed origin evaluation techniques. Phenological variation, particularly in relation to the potential for frost damage is described, height growth and […]

Tree felling - getting permission

This booklet tells you what you need to know about getting permission to fell any trees for yourself or for someone else. It is for guidance only and is not a legally binding interpretation of the legislation (the Forestry Act 1967 as amended). If you are unsure as to whether you require a licence, speak […]

Offenders and nature - Helping people, helping nature

Summary Report on ‘Offenders and Nature’ Schemes. These involve those serving a sentence in custody or in the community working as volunteers on nature conservation and woodland sites. By Claudia Carter, with contributions from Judith Hanna (Natural England).

Using dye markers to reduce pesticide use

Colourants used as dye markers may allow the better targeting of pesticide sprays, and could help to protect operators, as well as reducing overall levels of pesticide use in forestry.

Leisure landscapes

Exploring the role of forestry in tourism By Suzanne Martin. Related pages People, trees and woodlands Social forestry research

Leisure landscapes: exploring the role of forestry in tourism

This publication aims to provide an insight into the role of the forestry sector in tourism provision. It is targeted at people such as land managers, tourism operators and policy makers who have an interest in woodland management and leisure.

A method to describe the 3 dimensional branching structure of Sitka spruce

MSc Thesis – Edinburgh University 2007. Related pages Tree and Wood Properties Compression Wood Cell wall macromolecules and reaction wood (CEMARE)

Modelling spiral angle in Sitka spruce

MSc Thesis – York University 2007. Related pages Tree and Wood Properties Compression Wood Cell wall macromolecules and reaction wood (CEMARE)

New timber architecture in Scotland

This publication illustrates 90 exemplar projects and demonstrates clearly that there is no single building type unsuited to the use of this adaptable, variable and infinitely renewable material.

Selecting nozzles for hand-held applicators

This Technical Note provides guidance on the selection of appropriate spray nozzle(s) for use in the application of pesticides. Influences on selection, such as type of target, weather conditions, pesticide formulation, spray equipment and spray quality, are described. Information is provided on the British Crop Protection Nozzle Code. Types of nozzle and their functions, care […]

Forestry Statistics 2006

Forestry Statistics is a compendium of statistical information about woodland, forestry and primary wood processing in the UK. Forestry Statistics is now published in a web format only. The PDF available here contains the information from the original interactive web pages.

Growing places

A study of social change in The National Forest By Jake Morris and John Urry. A Lancaster University Research Project with the National Forest Company and the Forestry Commission. Related pages People, trees and woodlands Social forestry research

A marvellous opportunity for children to learn

A participatory evaluation of Forest School in England and Wales By Liz O’Brien and Richard Murray.

Seed sources for planting native trees and shrubs in Scotland

This guidance note sets out Forestry Commission Scotland (FCS) policy for selecting suitable origins, provenances, and categories of planting material for planting native species of trees and shrubs in Scotland.

Planning and Managing Pesticide Stores

This Technical Note outlines legislation governing pesticide use and sets out training and certification requirements relevant to pesticide storage. It provides recommendations on planning, constructing and maintaining permanent and mobile pesticide stores and gives guidance on the management and safe storage of pesticides. Advice is also given on waste disposal, health and safety issues and […]

Mechanised Spraying Systems for Herbicide Use in Forestry

This Technical Note outlines these application methods and provides details on the components of mechanised sprayers and herbicide delivery systems. Information is also provided on pre- and poststorage maintenance, sprayer testing and spray drift management. Conclusions and recommendations give guidance for the use of mechanised sprayers in forestry.

Forestry facts and figures 2006

A summary of statistics about woodland and forestry.

Ffeithiau a ffigurau'r coedwigaeth 2006

Crynodeb o Ystadegau Ynglyn a Choetiroedd a Choedwigoedd. A summary of statistics about woodland and forestry (Welsh/English)

Heritage trees of Scotland

More than 130 of Scotland's most remarkable trees are stunningly presented in the second edition of Heritage Trees of Scotland now in its expanded hardback second edition.

Traction Aids in Forestry

This Technical Note discusses the benefits of traction aids in forestry. Generic types of traction aids and their effects on machine travel are described. Guidance is provided on when and where traction aids should be used along with their characteristics under different operating conditions and their selection according to site. Advantages and disadvantages of using […]

[Archive] Choosing provenance in broadleaved trees

This Information Note reviews evidence from trials and provides recommendations and advice to growers seeking to select the best broadleaved provenances for British conditions.

Wild harvests from Scottish woodlands: social, cultural and economic values of contemporary non-timber forest products

The research reported in this publication was designed to document social, cultural, economic and environmental characteristics of current non-timber forest product gatherer practices and perceptions and explore their implications for forest policy and management.Collecting wild plant materials and fungi is a valued part of the lives of the people who participated in this project, and […]

Cableway extraction

Cableway extraction.

[Archive] Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2005-2006

This report is available to download here or to order in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

[Archive] An update on nursery propagation and establishment best practice for larch in Britain

This Information Note summarises the results of a series of experiments, including a synthesis of data from previous Forest Research publications, to provide information regarding recent advances in propagation of hybrid larch using cutting production systems.

The creation of small woodlands on farms

This guidance describes the benefits of creating new small woodlands on farm land, where they can best be sited and offers some advice on planning, layout and species.

Managing Brash on Conifer Clearfell Sites

This Practice Note gives guidance on the range of available options for brash management, and the possible consequences of each option.

"Strengthening heart and mind”: Using woodlands to improve mental and physical Well-being

In the United Kingdom, a number of efforts to improve people’s health and well-being focus on the value of trees and woodlands By Liz O’Brien. Article from Unasylva – Forests and human health. Issue 224 (Volume 57, 2006/2), a publication of the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations.

[Archive] Forestry Commission Annual Report and Accounts: GB and England 2005–2006

This report is available to download here or to buy in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

Best Practice Guidance for Land Regeneration

Best Practice Guidance for Land Regeneration is a series of Guidance Notes based on research and practical experience in the restoration of brownfield land for woodland and urban greening.

Small-scale Systems for Harvesting Woodfuel Products

Small woodlands in Great Britain are a potential source of woodfuel for local heating, but there are difficulties identifying efficient harvesting systems. This Technical Note provides guidance on the selection of appropriate systems for small-scale harvesting operations. It considers four factors that influence the overall selection: i) woodland type and woodfuel product(s); ii) site and […]

Protecting the environment during mechanised harvesting operations

This Technical Note provides guidance on matching harvesting systems to site conditions to reduce the risk of soil damage and water pollution. It updates some previously identified issues and describes some new techniques. Information is provided on site planning, selection of machines, brash mat construction and maintenance, forest road approaches/drainage and roadside stacking.

The implications of transformation to continuous cover forestry systems for conifer timber quality and log supply in the UK

Report on Scottish Forestry Trust-funded project to investigate implications for timber quality of transformation of uniform forests to irregular structures. Related pages Tree and Wood Properties Compression Wood Cell wall macromolecules and reaction wood (CEMARE)

Predicting the branching properties of Sitka spruce grown in Great Britain

Paper on a branching model for Sitka spruce. Related pages Tree and Wood Properties Compression Wood Cell wall macromolecules and reaction wood (CEMARE)

Forestry Statistics 2005

Forestry Statistics is a compendium of statistical information about woodland, forestry and primary wood processing in the UK. Forestry Statistics is now published in web format only. The PDF available here contains the information from the original interactive web pages.

[Archive] Forest condition 2004

Forest condition 2004

Woodland owners' attitudes to public access provision in South-East England

By Andrew Church, Neil Ravenscroft and Gill Rogers. Forestry Commission Information Note 74. Related pages People, trees and woodlands Social forestry research

[Archive] Evaluating biodiversity in fragmented landscapes: principles

This Information Note explains the scientific principles behind the approach being developed as BEETLE – Biological and Environmental Evaluation Tools for Landscape Ecology.

[Archive] Woodland owners' attitudes to public access provision in south-east England

This Information Note discusses the research commissioned by Forestry Commission England in 2002 and undertaken by the University of Brighton  into the attitudes and perceptions of woodland owners to public access. The research covered six study areas in south-east England which represented a good range of woodland and owner types.

Forestry Facts and Figures 2005

A summary of statistics about woodland and forestry in Great Britain.

[Archive] Birch dieback in Scotland

A study was initiated in 2002 to examine the fungal pathology of birch dieback in Scotland. The main objectives of this project are to investigate the fungi infecting birch shoots in Scotland, identify the primary pathogens with the ability to infect healthy trees, determine the impact of these fungi on the national woodland resource, and […]

[Archive] Climate change and British woodland

The global climate is changing as a result of human activity, caused primarily by the increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The most recent predictions for the UK suggest an increase in temperature and changes in rainfall patterns, wind speed, cloud cover and humidity. This Information Note explains how these environmental changes may […]

Consultation and community involvement in forest planning

As part of Forest Design Planning, qualitative social research methods were used to describe and evaluate the participatory process developed in the New Forest. The process was followed in action at Cranborne Chase and North Dorset Forest District and interviews and discussion groups were held in 2003 and 2004. This report discusses in detail the […]

[Archive] Development of multiple leaders in sitka spruce and Japanese larch following outplanting

This report details a series of five experiments which were initiated to investigate the development of multiple leaders following simulated browsing/weevil damage to three size classes of Sitka spruce and Japanese larch immediately after planting.

[Archive] Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2004-2005

This report is available to download here or to order in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

[Archive] Water use by trees

This Information Note assesses the factors that influence the water use of trees and considers how conifers and broadleaves are likely to affect water resources in different parts of the UK.

[Archive] Needle diseases of pine

This Information Note has been withdrawn.

Consultation and community involvement in forest planning

Research in Cranbourne Chase and North Dorset. By Paul Tabbush. For a hardcopy of "Consultation and Community Involvement in Forest Planning" (price £6) contact Joanne Davies.

[Archive] Forestry Commission Annual Report and Accounts: GB and England 2004–2005

This report is available to download here or to buy in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

Making the grade - a guide to appearance grading UK grown hardwood timber

Information guide on the range of quality available from our sawn hardwood timber and highlights the special features of UK grown hardwoods that are often difficult to obtain from imports.

Woodland management for bats

Good practice guide which aims to strike a balance between the needs of bats and the diverse objectives of woodland managers.

[Archive] Managing light to enable natural regeneration in British conifer forests

This Information Note summarises the light requirements for seedling growth of conifer species beneath a forest canopy, and describes how to assess whether light levels beneath a stand are limiting seedling growth. Various methods of assessing light and canopy openness are described.

[Archive] Phytophthora disease of alder (3rd edition)

This revised edition (2004) replaces the previous edition published in 1998 and 2000.

Social science in forestry — Public participation and partnership

A review of Forestry Commission practice and governance in a changing political and economic context.

Extraction route trials on sensitive sites

The use of large-scale timber extraction machinery during harvesting places high load-bearing forces on extraction routes. Minimising this impact is particularly important on more sensitive sites. This Technical Note gives the results from two trials that assessed extraction route formations on deep peat sites. Information is provided on the evaluation of route construction materials, including […]

Life cycle assessment for construction products

An introductory guide to life cycle assessment for construction products aimed at manufacturers and specifiers. Jointly published by the Forestry Commission and BRE.

A sort of magical place: people's experiences of woodlands in northwest and southeast England

This publication aims to give land managers, policymakers and all those with a wide interest in forestry a picture of how people relate to woodlands and the natural environment. To obtain a hardcopy of this report (price £10) contact Joanne Davies of Forest Research at Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey.

Managing woodlands and their mammals

Proceedings of a symposium on ‘Managing woodlands and their mammals’ organised jointly by The Mammal Society and the Forestry Commission. The aim of the meeting was to bring mammalogists and foresters together to review knowledge, foster understanding and enhance cooperation between enthusiastic groups interested in the welfare of the British countryside. This publication seeks to […]

Forestry statistics 2004

Forestry Statistics is a compendium of statistical information about woodland, forestry and primary wood processing in the UK. Traditionally forestry statistics have focused on forests as a source of timber, and on the use of timber by wood processing industries. However, in recent years, it has been increasingly recognised that a wider range of environmental […]

Terrestrial Umbrella: Eutrophication and acidification of terrestrial ecosystems

The principal roles of Forest Research in this Defra programme were to provide expert advice and to deliver a range of site specific environmental, soil and vegetation-related parameters and data-sets required for the evaluation of the Critical Loads calculation methodology. This evaluation includes the testing and calibration of process-based dynamic models of soil chemistry. By […]

Guide to using woodland for sediment control

This guide describes the catchment approach that is being developed by a partnership of organisations in Cumbria in northwest England to control sediment inputs to Bassenthwaite Lake. It sets out the steps taken to identify the main sources of sediment and explores how woodland could help to alleviate the problem. By: By Tom Nisbet, Samantha […]

[Archive] Forestry Commission Annual Report and Accounts: GB and England 2003–2004

This report is available to download here or to buy in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

[Archive] Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2003-2004

This report is available to download here or to order in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

Annual report on the environmental change network (ECN) 2003-2004

By Sue Benham. Related pages Environmental change network Long term monitoring of forest ecosystems

Processing potential of lodgepole pine

Report on differences in timber performance of different provenances of lodgepole pine. Related pages Tree and Wood Properties Compression Wood Cell wall macromolecules and reaction wood (CEMARE)

Development and review concerning Forest Focus (PDF, 1.6MB)

Summary The European Community and the Member States are committed to implementing internationally agreed activities relating to the conservation and protection of forests. In this context it is in the general interest of the Community to develop the monitoring activities that have been established and run under Regulation (EC) 2152/2003 called Forest Focus and the […]

[Archive] Advances in biotechnology: powerful tools for tree breeding and genetic conservation

A range of biotechnological tools has been used by Forest Research to enhance the efficiencies of research and development programmes associated with tree breeding and genetic conservation. This Information Note presents some examples where such tools have been applied. These include enhancement of flowering in conifers, assessment of the efficiency of seed orchards, characterisation of […]

[Archive] Predicting site suitability for natural colonisation: upland birchwoods and native pinewoods in northern Scotland

This Note develops the principles outlined by Harmer in Forestry Commission Information Note 23 – Using natural colonisation to create or expand new woodlands.

Open space and social inclusion: local woodland use in central Scotland

This report presents the results of a project which researched the use and abuse of forests and woodlands in the central belt of Scotland. The research was to explore public use of, and attitudes towards, forests and woodlands, and to address questions on aspects of use and user provision which had been identified as important […]

Forestry facts and figures 2004

A summary of statistics about woodland and forestry in Great Britain

Ffeithiau a ffigurau'r coedwigaeth 2004

Crynodeb o Ystadegau Ynglyn a Choetiroedd a Choedwigoedd. A summary of statistics about woodland and forestry (Welsh/English)

A new dawn for native woodland restoration on the Forestry Commission Estate in Scotland

This publication reviews the progress made with Forest Enterprise Scotland's programme of native woodland maintenance, improvement, restoration and expansion…

Woodfuel Information Pack

This Woodfuel Information Pack brings together key basic information about many aspects of using wood for fuel. These include background on benefits, renewable energy targets and policy, conversion, end users and systems. For more information, visit our Tools and Resources fuel information pages. 

Opportunity mapping for trees and floods

By Samantha Broadmeadow and Tom Nisbet. Research Report to Parrett Catchment Project, Wet Woodland Group, December 2003. Related pages Forest hydrology Soil sustainability

[Archive] Open ground in upland forests: A review of its potential as wildlife habitat and appropriate management methods

By Russell Anderson. 2003. Related pages Habitat networks Landscape ecology Integrated establishment systems for the uplands Lowland native woodlands Integrated forest vegetation management Management of upland native woodlands Silvicultural and woodland management practices publications Vegetation management publications Woodland establishment and regeneration publications

[Archive] A survey of cattle-grazed woodlands in britain

By Helen M. Armstrong, Liz Poulsom, Tom Connolly and Andrew Peace (2003).

Habitat networks for wildlife and people - the creation of sustainable forest habitats

This publication discusses the enrichment of the natural heritage interest of Scotland's woods and forests through the creation of woodland networks – linking woodlands old and new to form a more continuous woodland cover. The punblication proposes ways in which our woods and forests can be linked more intimately within the landscape; suggests that woodland […]

[Archive] Phytophthora disease of alder in Europe

Alders play a vitally important role in Europe. Their diversity of characters not only enables them to establish as pioneers but in many cases also allows them to play a significant part in climax forests and make a major contribution to the ecology and stability of river banks. All four European alder species are important […]

[Archive] Forestry Commission Annual Report & Accounts: GB and England 2002–2003

Out of print: available as a PDF file only.This Report presents the Annual Report and Accounts 2002-2003 for Great Britain and England.The Forestry Commission also prepares formal Reports for the Scottish Parliament and the National Assembly for Wales. These cover our activities in Scotland and Wales.

[Archive] Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2002-2003

This report is available to download here or to order in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

Brash management on habitat restorations sites

Contact Jens Haufe. What's of interest These publications are produced by Technical Development. Some (mainly older) publications are not available online. If you do not find what you are looking for, please contact jens.haufe@forestresearch.gov.uk or bill.jones@forestresearch.gov.uk or phone 0300 067 5919.

Horse chestnut leaf miner

Monitoring the spread – can you help?

Managing the historic environment in woodland - The vital role of research

The historic environment is an important part of our heritage and contributes significantly to our understanding of the human past. This publication provides a review of the managment of the historic environment in woodlands, highlights important issues and reports on current and planned research. By Peter Crow. Article in Forest Research Annual Report 2002/3. Related […]

Social science in forestry

An introductory paper to the concept of ‘Social Forestry’. By Paul Tabbush, Liz O'Brien, Max Hislop and Suzanne Martin. Related pages People, trees and woodlands Social forestry research

Climate change and British woodland: What does the future hold?

By Mark Broadmeadow et. al. From Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2002-3. Related pages Climate change research

[Archive] Applying the Ecological Site Classification in the lowlands: a case study of the New Forest inclosures

Applying the Ecological Site Classification in the lowlands’ is an illustrated case study of the New Forest Inclosures, which cover an area of 8500 hectares in southern Britain. The Ecological Site Classification (ESC) model is a PC-based decision support system for forest managers. It is designed to match key site factors with the ecological requirements […]

The restoration of wooded landscapes

Proceedings of a conference held at Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh, 14-15 September 2000.This publication comprises the proceedings of the conference. Its principle aim was to bring together researchers, practitioners and policymakers to allow a full and free exchange of views, information and ideas on the theme of native woodland restoration at the landscape scale. This […]

The potential of applied landscape ecology to forest design planning

Progress in research with special reference to Glen Affric and Sherwood Forest.

Forestry facts and figures 2003

A summary of statistics about woodland and forestry in Great Britain.

Ffeithiau a ffigurau'r coedwigaeth 2003

Crynodeb o Ystadegau Ynglyn a Choetiroedd a Choedwigoedd ym Mhrydain Fawr.A summary of statistics about woodland and forestry in Great Britain (Welsh/English).

Forestry statistics 2003

Forestry Statistics is a compendium of statistical information about woodland, forestry and primary wood processing in the UK. Traditionally forestry statistics have focused on forests as a source of timber, and on the use of timber by wood processing industries. However, in recent years, it has been increasingly recognised that a wider range of environmental […]

Respiratory protective equipment

This Technical Note provides an introduction to the legislative background to respiratory protective equipment (RPE) and discusses the need for suitable RPE. The terminology used in respirator selection is described along with relevant details of the hazards that RPE can protect against. Emphasis is placed on selecting equipment that is suitable for each situation in […]

Health and well-being: trees, woodlands and natural spaces

This publication provides presentation synopses and workshop discussions from three expert consultations held on 'Health and Well-being: Trees, Woodlands and Natural Spaces' during 2002.

[Archive] Red band needle blight of pine

This publication has been replaced by a new Research Note – Red band needle blight of conifers in Britain

The effect of windblow on timber quality in Sitka spruce

Masters thesis, University of Edinuburgh. Related pages Tree and Wood Properties Compression Wood Cell wall macromolecules and reaction wood (CEMARE)

Stem straightness in Sitka spruce in Wales

Report on a survey of stem straightness. Related pages Tree and Wood Properties Compression Wood Cell wall macromolecules and reaction wood (CEMARE)

[Archive] Climate change: impacts on UK forests

It is now widely accepted that mankind’s activities are having a discernible effect on the global climate, and these changes will impact upon the functioning of many of the planet’s natural systems. Climate change will have a variety of direct and indirect effects on forests and, thus, will have implications for forest management. This Bulletin […]

[Archive] Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2001-2002

This report is available to download here or to order in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

Scotland's trees, woods and forests

This booklet is written for anyone and everyone with an interest in Scotland’s trees, woods and forests.

Trees are company

Social Science Research into Woodlands and the Natural Environment This publication provides the presentation papers, workshop discussions, questions and answers and plenary discussion from the conference. Edited by Liz O'Brien & Jenny Claridge. Related pages People, trees and woodlands Social forestry research

Tree Planting Information Note

OutDoor Workshop 10.02 * These publications are produced by Technical Development. Some (mainly older) publications are not available online. If you do not find what you are looking for, please contact jens.haufe@forestresearch.gov.uk or bill.jones@forestresearch.gov.uk or phone 0300 067 5919.

Models for the timber quality assessment of the actual forest resource

Report showing the development of a set of wood property models for British-grown Sitka spruce. Related pages Tree and Wood Properties Compression Wood Cell wall macromolecules and reaction wood (CEMARE)

[Archive] Poplar rust and its recent impact in Great Britain

This revised edition (September 2002) replaces the previous 2 editions published in 1998 and 2001. Interim information – Tree death in poplar plantations – published in November 2005 is also available to download from this page.

[Archive] Timber cladding in Scotland

Information note on Timber cladding

Trees are company: social science research into woodlands and the natural environment

This publication provides the presentation papers, workshop discussions, questions and answers and plenary discussion from a two-day conference held at Cardiff University in June 2001. The main aim of the conference was to outline the future direction for social forestry research and develop a broader perspective on issues connected with people and the environment. The […]

Handling and storing acorns & chestnuts and sycamore fruits

The fruits of oaks, chestnuts and sycamore are extremely perishable. They are shed at a high moisture content and, unlike most fruits and seeds, are killed by very little drying. They are also frequently infected with fungi which thrive in the moist conditions necessary to avoid dehydration damage. The best advice is to nursery sow […]

Establishment and management of short rotation coppice

This Practice Note reviews existing knowledge and gives guidance on site selection and preparation, plantation design, planting, weed control, crop management, pest management and yield for short rotation coppice plantations of willow and poplar grown as sources of renewable energy. Comprehensive references are included should readers require more information. Applicants to DEFRA’s Energy Crop Scheme […]

Forestry facts and figures 2002

A summary of statistics about woodland and forestry in Great Britain.

Ffeithiau a ffigurau'r coedwigaeth 2002

Crynodeb o Ystadegau Ynglyn a Choetiroedd a Choedwigoedd ym Mhrydain Fawr.A summary of statistics about woodland and forestry in Great Britain (Welsh/English).

Forestry statistics 2002

Forestry Statistics is a compendium of statistical information about woodland, forestry and primary wood processing in the UK. Traditionally forestry statistics have focused on forests as a source of timber, and on the use of timber by wood processing industries. However, in recent years, it has been increasingly recognised that a wider range of environmental […]

Forestry statistics 2001

Forestry Statistics is a new compendium of statistical information about woodland, forestry and primary wood processing in the UK. Traditionally forestry statistics have focused on forests as a source of timber and on the use of timber by wood processing industries. However, it has been increasingly recognised that a wider range of environmental and social […]

Sustainable forest management: the international framework

2002 report. Outlines, from a domestic perspective, some of the key international commitments on forests and identifies the actions associated with them.

Planning controlled burning operations in forestry

This Technical Note is produced as a guide to the planning of controlled burning operations in forests and is the first in a series of three on forest fire control. The others are: Forest and moorland fire suppression and Burning forest residues.

[Archive] An ecological site classification for forestry in Great Britain

Ecological Site Classification (ESC) will help forest managers to select tree species, and to make related decisions based on an appreciation of the ecological potential of sites. The classification focuses on the key factors of site that influence tree growth, and that are important to the rest of the ecosystem. This site-orientated approach to tree […]

[Archive] Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2000-2001

This report is available to download here or to order in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

[Archive] Deforesting and restoring peat bogs: a review

Afforestation affects bogs by triggering physical, chemical and biological changes within the environment. The primary purpose of bog restoration is to re-create wildlife habitat. This Technical Paper addresses the case for restoration, the basic principles that should be considered, the special case of cracked peat, and results from and practical experience gained in past restoration […]

Social forestry

Questions and Issues This publication contains the presentations given by Forest Enterprise, Forest Research and Forestry Commission speakers and the contributions made by all delegates in workshop discussion groups which focused on quality of life issues, stakeholders and their importance and social sustainability. Related pages People, trees and woodlands Social forestry research

Short rotation coppice in the landscape

This Note outlines the main landscape considerations that need to be taken into account when planning the establishment of short rotation coppice, and provides advice to growers on the ways in which an area of coppice can be designed to blend in with the rest of the landscape.

The influence of the site factor wind exposure on wood quality

Report on project to predict from stand characteristics and measurements on individual trees the wood quality of timber produced from a wind-exposed stand and of the potential end products. Related pages Tree and Wood Properties Compression Wood Cell wall macromolecules and reaction wood (CEMARE)

Stem straightness in Sitka spruce in South Scotland

Report on a survey of stem straightness. Related pages Tree and Wood Properties Compression Wood Cell wall macromolecules and reaction wood (CEMARE)

[Archive] Genetic variation and conservation of British native trees and shrubs: current knowledge and policy implications

This Technical paper provides an account of genetic variation in forest tree species. It reviews our understanding of the genetic variation of native tree and shrub species in Britain. Highlights the issues that need to be addressed in developing a genetic conservation policy for British forestry. This publication is still available in hardcopy.

[Archive] The potential for woodland on urban and industrial wasteland in England and Wales

This report considers the use of woodlands as a means of rehabilitating urban and industrial wastelands, and the availability of such land as a resource for new woodlands in England and Wales. This publication is still available in hardcopy.

[Archive] Managing rides, roadsides and edge habitats in lowland forests

This Bulletin provides information on the ecological value and management of rides, roadsides and edge habitats. Part One describes the ecology of edges and open areas. It looks at their value in both semi-natural and plantation woodland, and discusses the influences of light and microclimate, vegetation succession and wildlife. Part Two provides a guide to […]

[Archive] Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 1999-2000

The report is available to download here or to order in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

[Archive] Agroforestry in the UK

The main aim of this Bulletin is to provide practical advice about the establishment and management of a range of agroforestry practices derived from a decade of research in the United Kingdom (UK). In addition, the Bulletin describes the interactions of trees with crops and livestock, the environmental, social and economic impacts of these interactions […]

Vimek 606D mini-forwarder

(PDF-141K) OutDoor Workshop 07.12a

[Archive] Twenty-fifth Annual Report of the Forestry Commissioners 1943-1944

Owing to war-time difficulties this report was not published.

[Archive] Forestry Commission 80th Annual Report and Accounts 1999-2000

Published by The Stationary Office, for the year ending 31 March 2000.

[Archive] The impact of deer on woodland biodiversity

This information Note provides recommendations for establishing effective deer management and tree protection measures.

[Archive] Natural regeneration in broadleaved woodlands: deer browsing and the establishment of advance regeneration

Information and advice is provided within this note on the effects of deer browsing within different broadleaved woodlands.

Nant-yr-Hwch long-term forest design plan: an example of good practice from the private sector

[Due to the large size of this document, a pdf file is not available]

[Archive] Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 1998-1999

The report is available to download here or to order in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

[Archive] Forestry Commission 79th Annual Report and Accounts 1998-99

Published by The Stationary Office, for the year ending 31 March 1999.

[Archive] Herbicide update

This Technical Paper updates information in Forestry Commission Field Book 8 The use of herbicides in the forest. It provides a summary of recent Forestry Commission research findings concerning the use of herbicides in forestry, and also explains relevant changes in legislation and approved products.Key herbicides cited in this publication: atrazine, cyanazine, cycloxydim, clopyralid, dichlobenil, […]

[Archive] The native woodland resource of Scotland: a review 1993–1998

This Technical Paper summarises the present extent of native woodland in Scotland, which is a substantially greater resource than has previously been recognised, reviews the planting and natural regeneration of native woodlands over the past 5 years, and considers the value of existing survey information in relation to the preparation of the UK Habitat Action […]

[Archive] Forest tree seedlings

This Bulletin gives guidance about choosing plants for the establishment of different types of woodland in Britain. Recent research has identified the best practices for handling and planting trees to ensure high rates of survival and good growth following planting. Recommendations cover the range of activities from plant supply through to monitoring the success of […]

[Archive] The potential for the natural regeneration of conifers in Britain

As Britain’s new conifer forests have matured there has been increasing interest in the use of natural regeneration for restocking after felling. While achieving successful natural regeneration can reduce costs and provide environmental benefits the uncertainties associated with its use can make it difficult for forest managers to decide when and where to rely on […]

[Archive] Woodland creation: experience from the national forest

A practical guide explaining how to create new woodlands in the National Forest. Advice is based on general principles of tree establishment techniques, latest research findings and, importantly, the experience of establishing three large Demonstration Woodlands in the National Forest. A site visit to at least one of them will bring to life the points […]

[Archive] Cultivation of soils for forestry

This Bulletin describes how foresters can use cultivation to provide a favourable site for tree survival and growth. A guiding principle is to work within the limitations of the site and to appreciate the effects of cultivation upon the microsite and the wider forest environment. The wide range of cultivation techniques now available means that […]

[Archive] How many deer? A guide to estimating deer population size

Section 1 of this Field Guide considers the need to manage deer. Section 2 gives guidance on choosing a suitable census and sampling method. Section 3 presents 21 methods of population estimation, with a worked example provided in most cases. Methods of greatest use to practising deer managers (in terms of time and cost-effectiveness) are […]

[Archive] Poplar and willow varieties for short rotation coppice

This information note has been withdrawn due to disease problems with some varieties. Interim information – Tree death in poplar plantations – is available to download from this page.

Recommendations for fallow, roe and muntjac deer fencing: new proposals for temporary and reusable fencing

This Practice Note presents the recommendations resulting from research work into reducing the cost of deer fencing without compromising on efficiency.

Using local stock for planting native trees and shrubs

This Note describes a system intended to facilitate the identification of, and trade in, locally sourced stock for the planting of native species of trees and shrubs in Britain.

Managing deer in the countryside

This Note provides information on: identifying whether there are deer present and of which species; deciding whether deer are causing damage; the ways in which deer problems can be prevented and knowing where to go for more advice.

[Archive] Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 1997-1998

The report is available to download here or to order in hardcopy from The Stationery Office (TSO) (Phone: 0870 600 5522; www.tsoshop.co.uk)

[Archive] Forestry Commission 78th Annual Report and Accounts 1997-98

Published by The Stationary Office for HMSO, for the year ending 31 March 1998.

[Archive] Birch in spruce plantations: management for biodiversity

This Technical Paper brings together a series of papers presented at the symposium ‘Birch in spruce plantations: management for biodiversity’ held at Scottish Natural Heritage’s Battleby Conference Centre, Perth, in February 1997. The aim of this symposium was to present the findings from a series of collaborative research projects funded jointly by the Forestry Commission […]

[Archive] Grazing as a management tool in European forest ecosystems

Nine papers presented at a workshop funded as part of an EU concerted action programme, aimed at reviewing information on the impact of grazing animals on forest ecosystems, identifying management problems, and determining priority areas for research. There is need for better integration of ecological and economic objectives in forest ecosystems; large herbivores can be […]

[Archive] Timber measurement - a field guide

This Booklet is designed purely for field use. It assumes some knowledge of, and training in, forest measurement procedures which are more fully described in the Forest Mensuration Handbook by G. J. Hamilton, and the reader is referred to this publication for further information. However, the present Booklet contains all the mensurational information which may […]

[Archive] Ecology and conservation of raptors in forests

The main aim of this Bulletin is to inform forest managers about the ecology of birds of prey in these new conifer forests and to offer practical advice on management techniques that will improve their attractiveness for this important group of birds. While the information and advice given concentrates on and relates to man-made forests […]

[Archive] The green spruce aphid in Western Europe: ecology, status. impacts and prospects for management

The development and regulation of green spruce aphid pest problems in Europe were the subject of a European Community Concerted Action funded in part by the EC Agriculture, Fisheries, Forestry and Agro-Industry Specific Programme as project AIR3- CT94-1883. This Technical Paper is the product of a collaboration between forest research institutes in the four European […]

[Archive] Diseases and disorders of forest trees: a guide to identifying causes of ill health in woods and plantations

Part I provides some useful guidelines by which managers and owners can investigate health problems in their trees through straightforward field observations. Part II is a key to the major problems of plantation trees. Part III describes the main features of some of the more common and most important diseases and disorders of forest trees […]

[Archive] Christmas tree pests

When conifers have been grown for Christmas trees in lowland arable farmland areas under an intensive short-rotation system, it has sometimes been found difficult to produce good quality foliage without embarking on some kind of insect control. Thirty-one species of aphids, moths, sawflies, beetles and mites are of concern to growers of Christmas trees in […]

Red squirrel conservation

This Practice Note aims to increase awareness and understanding of the need for red squirrel conservation and the approach being taken to achieve it. It describes the key principles and factors to be considered when deciding where and how to plan for red squirrel conservation in our woodlands and provides a guide to sources of […]

The prevention of mammal damage to trees in woodland

This note is designed to help woodland managers diagnose mammal damage, to evaluate its severity, to consider management options and to determine the appropriate action to take. Suggested sources of more detailed information on damage control operations are included.

The prevention of rabbit damage to trees in woodland

Rabbits have increased considerably in numbers in the British countryside. This Note gives a brief description of the problems associated with rabbits and summarises the control methods available.

Nearest neighbour method for quantifying wildlife damage to trees in woodland

This Practice Note discusses in detail the nearet neighbour method and its use as a decision making tool for wildlife management.

Native woodlands of Scotland

This booklet offers an answer to the questions: What are native woodlands? What are they used for? Why are native trees important? Why are our native woodlands special?

[Archive] Forestry Commission 77th Annual Report and Accounts 1996-97

Printed by The Stationary Office for HMSO, for the year ending 31 March 1997.

[Archive] Recycling land for forestry: proceedings of the Forestry Commission and British Land Reclamation Society Conference, University of Wolverhampton

Eight papers from a conference on restoring disturbed land to forestry, relevant because of the rapid increase in this type of land use in support of urban forestry initiatives. The papers represent a valuable set of opinions, and a basis from which further work in promoting woodland cover on restored disturbed land can be developed. […]

[Archive] Foxes and forestry

The red fox is a generalist predator and scavenger, adapted to a range of habitats. An account of fox biology in relation to forestry is given, information on fox population trends is reviewed, and recommendations made with regard to strategies for management of the economic impact of foxes. This information is of value to forest […]

[Archive] An Ecological Site Classification for forestry in Great Britain with special reference to Grampian, Scotland

Describes a site classification that provides a sound ecological basis for the sustainable management of forests and resulting timber production, wildlife conservation and other benefits. Applicable to all kinds of woodlands, it incorporates the existing classification of soil types used for many years when selecting silvicultural options. Much of this publication is specific to Grampian […]

[Archive] Trees for shelter

Proceedings from a highly topical seminar, the main objectives of which were: to review current research and development on the use of trees for shelter; to increase the awareness of shelter-related work being undertaken in the UK; to identify priority areas for future research and potential collaborative links. Papers were presented on trees for shelter […]

[Archive] Weed control in Christmas tree plantations

Good weed control is essential for quality Christmas tree production. Herbicides are usually the most cost-effective way of achieving this. Two principal categories of Christmas tree production can be identified: production in forest plantations and specialist horticultural production. For these two situations, suitable candidate herbicides are identified, and guidance on their safe and effective use […]

Tree establishment on landfill sites

The results of 3 years commissioned research in the 1990s provide valuable information and advice on this important topic. Care in soil selection and placement, species choice, tree stock type, weed control, and protection against browsing animals is emphasised. Provided that there is a sufficient depth of overlying soil, woodland should pose no greater threat […]

[Archive] Revised forecasts of the supply and demand for wood in the United Kingdom

Presents models of wood supply and wood product demand for the UK to 2050. The forecasts show that it is likely that wood supply will increase with demand up to 2025. After that, if no new planting is undertaken, supply will fall while demand will continue to rise (although in this respect there is a […]

[Archive] Forestry Commission 76th Annual Report and Accounts 1995-96

Published by HMSO, for the year ending March 31 1996.

[Archive] Perceptions, attitudes and preferences in forests and woodlands

In order to gain a clearer understanding of the value of forests for visitor recreation the Forestry Commission funded a research project to evaluate public perceptions, attitudes and preferences in forests and woodlands. This Technical Paper presents the background to the project, and the results and analyses of the research. It will provide a comprehensive […]

[Archive] The native woodland resource in the Scottish lowlands: a review of current statistics

This report provides a summary account of the present extent, distribution, composition and condition of the native woodlands in the Scottish Lowlands. There are approx 29,000 ha of which over half is of natural origin and commonly of birch and oak. In the planted areas, oak, ash and elm predominate. The percentage of native species […]

[Archive] The boreal forests of Scotland

This Technical paper draws together information on the forests of the Scottish Highlands, many of which are regarded as being extreme oceanic variants of the boreal forest. Composition, structure, dynamics and history are described and the future of Scottish boreal forests is assessed. This publication is still available to order in hardcopy.

[Archive] Thetford Forest Park: the ecology of a pine forest

This Technical Paper includes papers from the Thetfore symposium of 1991. The symposium was designed to gather together the results of a wide range of research which collectively have added greatly to our understanding of this pine forest ecosystem and influenced its management. The intended audience is woodland managers and ecologists and anyone with an […]

[Archive] Herbicides for farm woodlands and short rotation coppice

Information is given on the use of herbicides in farm woodland and short rotation coppice. Recommendations are given for suitable herbicides for a range of crop and weed species. Approval status, approved products, crop tolerance, weed susceptibility and herbicide mixtures are discussed. A lengthy appendix lists notices of approval for proprietary products. This publication is […]

[Archive] Experiments on lodgepole pine seed origins in Britain

The range of lodgepole pine extends over 26 million hectares of north-west America, where climates vary from the bitter cold Yukon to the very mild Californian coast. It occurs from sea level to 3900 min elevation. Over millions of years it evolved into a species which shows more variability than any other conifer. Practical forest […]

[Archive] Water storage of timber: experience in Britain

From time to time a calamity such as forest fire or violent storm requires that timber is salvaged quickly. Where such timber is plantation grown the investment loss that major destruction brings is catastrophic unless the most valuable timber can be saved and then marketed in an orderly way. This Bulletin reports on a successful […]

[Archive] Designing forest edges to improve wind stability

Forest edges are important for the stability, visual impact and biodiversity of forests. Improved design of edge plantings will enhance the benefits they provide. Wind tunnel experiments are described and results indicate the effect of different edge treatments on stability. Practical methods for creating edges that can improve forest stability and visual appeal are discussed. […]

[Archive] Borates for stump protection: a literature review

The use of borates for the control of Fomes root and butt rot of conifers is reviewed in relation to the history of their use in wood preservatives, their efficacy as stump treatment materials, and their effect on the environment. Effectiveness, phytotoxicity, vertebrate toxicity, and environmental impact are all considered. Borates are effective in controlling […]

[Archive] The native woodland resource in the Scottish highlands

Provides a summary account of the present extent, distribution, composition and condition of the native woodlands of the Highlands, which at over 210,000 ha is substantially greater than had previously been recognised. Half is of natural origin and half is of planted origin native woodland. Birch, Scots pine and oak are the commonest native species. […]

[Archive] Decline in sitka spruce on the South Wales coalfield

This Technical Paper describes a collaborative effort to explain the reduced growth at time of canopy closure or later of Sitka spruce on parts of the South Wales coalfield. Stem analysis showed that growth had declined steeply over a period of about four years. Decline was associated with thin crowns and with bending of the […]

[Archive] Forestry Commission 75th Annual Report and Accounts 1994-95

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 31 March 1995.

[Archive] The use of treeshelters: 1992 survey

The correct use of treeshelters is important to ensure successful and rapid early establishment of young trees. Almost 200 sites were surveyed with the object of comparing actual usage of treeshelters with the recommendations (see FC Handbook 7). Effective weed control is essential with use of treeshelters. Height of treeshelters must take into account the […]

[Archive] Forests and wind: management to minimise damage

Wind damage is a serious threat to managed forests because it results in loss of timber yield, landscape quality and wildlife habitat. The most common form of wind damage in Britain is windthrow in which both stem and roots overturn. Prediction and prevention of wind damage have been important elements of forest management, and the […]

[Archive] Creating and managing woodlands around towns

This Handbook describes how to plan, create and manage urban woodlands. The primary role of urban forestry is to provide multi-purpose woodlands which improve the quality of daily life for the 46 million urban people of Britain and so the Handbook goes beyond the technical issues of establishing and m anaging trees to encompass community […]

[Archive] Alternative silvicultural systems to clear cutting in Britain: a review

This Bulletin is written for landowners and foresters who wish to convert all or part of a wood or forest from pure, regular, uniform, even-aged stands to mixed, irregular, uneven-aged stands – in particular for those who desire to use silvicultural systems alternative to that of extensive clear cutting, with a view to achieving diverse […]

[Archive] Analysis of the changes in forest condition in Britain 1989 to 1992

A computer system was developed for mapping the Forestry Commission’s records of forest condition in Great Britain. This facility also conveniently allows forest condition records to be combined with meteorological and pollution data. The present Forestry Commission survey was evaluated to determine how well the design represented certain regional and local variations in environmental (including […]

[Archive] The use of herbicides in the forest (4th edition)

A comprehensive account of chemical weed control techniques for use in forestry. Covers pesticide legislation, safety precautions and good working practices, herbicides for use against specific weed vegetation types, farm forestry weed control, protective clothing and personal equipment, application equipment and output guides, lists of herbicides and manufacturers, sources of advice, and an index of […]

[Archive] Managing forests for biodiversity

Managing Forests for Biodiversity was the title of a one-day symposium, organised by the British Ecological Society’s Forest Ecology Group, and held at the Maybury Hotel, Edinburgh on 2 September 1992. This Technical Paper is a record of papers presented at the symposium plus additional information, preceded by a brief introductory review. The symposium was […]

[Archive] Champion trees in the British Isles

Measurements of exceptional trees have been recorded for a considerable number of years: initially out of curiosity, especially about maximum size, and then to investigate the potential for growth and productivity according to species and situation. The Forestry Commission tree register provided all the measurements for early editions of this title. The register was begun […]

[Archive] Forestry Commission 74th Annual Report and Accounts 1993-94

Published by HMOS, for the year ending 31 March 1994.

[Archive] Provisional yield tables for poplar in Britain

Poplars are noted for their extremely rapid rates of growth. The development of new canker-and rust-resistant clones in Belgium and their introduction into Britain make them a very attractive crop to grow on suitable sites, such as former agricultural land. New tables are needed to reflect the more rapid rates of growth seen at spacings […]

[Archive] The private woodlands survey

In 1990, the future of the Private Woodlands Survey was reconsidered by the Forestry Commission. Its original purpose had been to inform interested parties on reviews of planting grants. In recent years, however, a change in the economic rationale underlying grant-aid to private woodland owners has been increasingly recognised. This means that the primary basis […]

[Archive] Reclaiming disturbed land for forestry

This Bulletin has been written to give up-to-date practical advice to people involved in the reclamation of disturbed land who wish to plant trees on the restored site. The Bulletin provides a comprehensive guide both to mineral companies, in preparing planning applications which involve proposals for forestry, and to mineral planning authorities, in considering such […]

[Archive] Management of forests for capercaillie in Scotland

The aim of this Bulletin is to summarise the best current information about the birds’ requirements and to provide guidelines for forest management which will benefit capercaillie. As far as possible, we base our recommendations on well-documented facts. Where hard data are not available, we make informed guesses based on anecdotal natural history and casual […]

[Archive] Forest nursery practice (2ed)

This Bulletin, written by experts in their field, describes techniques involved in successful production of bare-rooted and cell- (small container-) grown stock of the tree species most widely planted in United Kingdom forestry. The subjects covered include: formation of new nurseries; maintenance of the fertility of existing nurseries; procurement of seed; production of seedlings and […]

[Archive] Creating new native woodlands

This Bulletin combines expertise in woodland ecology and up-to-date silvicultural knowledge.

[Archive] Wildlife rangers handbook

This Handbook is based on the creative conservation employed at Cannock. It is a manual written by working wildlife rangers for working wildlife rangers, and it will benefit shy and endangered wildlife and the public who can now enjoy them. The Handbook includes sections on: the ranger and forestry, wildlife and conservation, crop protection, deer […]

[Archive] Forestry Commission 73rd Annual Report and Accounts 1992-93

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 31 March 1993.

[Archive] The carbon content of trees

Calculations of the quantities of carbon stored by trees requires a knowledge, not only of their growth rates, but also of the proportions of carbon contributing to their chemical make-up. This Technical Paper presents the results of a search of the literature for reported values for carbon contents and results of estimations of carbon contents […]

[Archive] Forest nursery herbicides

Information is given on the use of forest nursery herbicides. Much of this information is based on the results of Forestry Commission experiments. A brief description of the types of herbicides is given followed by information on the various herbicides which can be used at the different stages of forest nursery stock production. This publication […]

[Archive] Black grouse and forestry: habitat requirements and management

The black grouse is a large, sexually dimorphic species found typically in habitats transitional between moorland and forest. Numbers of black grouse have recently declined throughout much of Europe. In Britain, the species is now largely confined to Scotland, the north of England and Wales. Continued loss and fragmentation of habitat represents the most serious […]

[Archive] Deterioration of fine tree roots during cold storage in two contrasting winters

Electrolyte leakage from fine roots was measured before and after 30 and 90 days cold storage. The effect of the entry date and the length of cold storage were examined during the exceptionally mild winter of 1989-90 and the more typical winter of 1990-91. In the first year, roots from 2-year-old transplants and undercuts of […]

[Archive] The value of birch in upland forests for wildlife conservation

Broadleaved trees and shrubs are frequently scarce in upland forests in Britain, and national policy is to increase the proportion of broadleaves because of their value as wildlife habitat. Birches (Betula pubescens Ehrh. and Betula pendula Roth.) are between them adapted to succeed on a wide range of soils and are the commonest native trees […]

[Archive] Classification and presentation of softwood sawlogs (2nd edition)

These recommendations are agreed by Forest Enterprise, the British Timber Merchants' Association, and the UK Softwood Sawmillers Association. The normal practice of the Forestry Commission will be to classify parcels of sawlogs offered for sale into four categories: green, red, short green, and log pole, for which descriptions are given. The FC aims to maximise […]

[Archive] Invertebrate animals as indicators of acidity in upland streams

Studies in the UK and elsewhere have shown that acid freshwater habitats have different floras and faunas and fewer species in most taxonomic groups, when compared with near-neutral waters. The presence or absence of certain common species that are sensitive to acid waters can be used to assess the prevailing chemistry of a water body. […]

[Archive] Growing broadleaves for timber

Growing broadleaves for timber describes the silvicultural principles and practices involved in growing quality broadleaved timber in Britain. The aim of this Handbook is to update and expand one aspect of Forestry Commission Bulletin 62 Silviculture of broadleaved woodland, to focus attention on one single objective: growing high quality hardwood. This objective usually integrates well […]

[Archive] Forestry Commission 72nd Annual Report and Accounts 1991-92

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 31 March 1992.

[Archive] Forest fencing

Fencing is a necessary but expensive forest management operation. While it is possible to erect a fence that is completely effective against any animal, this is usually too costly. Any forest fence is a compromise between expense and effectiveness. The introduction of spring steel wire by the Forestry Commission into the construction of forest fences […]

[Archive] Roe deer biology and management

Roe deer are distributed widely in Great Britain and are managed for a number of reasons including the reduction of impact on trees and vegetation and their exploitation as a game species. Population data, especially on survivorship, on which to base management plans, are difficult to obtain and have previously been unavailable. This Bulletin gives […]

[Archive] Seed manual for forest trees

This Bulletin comprises a series of chapters covering all phases of seed usage of commercial forestry species from source selection, through collection, processing, storage and legislation, to seed sowing; each chapter is written by individual specialists in their field. The Bulletin is still available in hardcopy.

[Archive] Super sitka for the 90's

This Bulletin presents the information from a meeting in 1990 which was focused on Sitka spruce in Britain. The keynote speaker discussed the use of cuttings in spruce plantations throughout the world. A series of speakers then dealt with the following aspects, all of which are provided in this Bulletin: breeding strategy and levels of […]

[Archive] A manual of good practice for the use of sewage sludge in forestry

Sewage sludge, a mixture of solids and water produced during the treatment of waste water, can be used as a valuable fertiliser and is currently widely used as such in agriculture. Since 1981 a joint Forestry Commission/WRc research programme has evaluated the growth responses and environmental implications of sewage sludge applications to forests (Bayes et […]

[Archive] Valuing informal recreation on the Forestry Commission Estate

The Bulletin estimates the consumer surplus (or net monetary benefit) from informal recreation on the Forestry Commission estate. The Forestry Commission’s estate of more than 1 million hectares is managed for mutiple-use and multiple benefits. Calculations of the costs and benefits of timber production are made in financial terms using discounted cash flow models. Most […]

[Archive] Woodland management for pheasants

This Bulletin summarises the findings of a 3-year study sponsored by the Forestry Commission and carried out by the Game Conservancy. The study undertook to quantify habitat requirements of pheasants, to assess the benefits or disadvantages to pheasants of different forms of woodland management and to investigate the effects of managing woods for pheasants on […]

[Archive] Monitoring vegetation changes in conservation management of forests

Monitoring should be an integral part of conservation management in forests. It provides managers with information on the status and trend of species or habitats, and indicates whether specific goals have been achieved. Vegetation assessments can be used to monitor habitat quality as well as plant and species composition. Plants can be more easily monitored […]

[Archive] Establishing farm woodlands

Diversification into new land use is now being actively encouraged for farmers and landowners facing agricultural surpluses and falling incomes. Woodland is one of the options for consideration. In the main, requirements in Britain for timber and timber products are satisfied through imports, so potential demand for British grown timber is there to be exploited. […]

[Archive] Forestry Commission 71st Annual Report and Accounts 1990-91

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 31 March 1991.

[Archive] Forestry Expansion - a study of technical, economic and ecological factors - Forests as wildlife habitat

This is one of a series of papers which form part of a study to consider the scale, location and nature of forestry expansion in Britain.

[Archive] Forestry Expansion - a study of technical, economic and ecological factors - Development of the British wood processing industries

This is one of a series of papers which form part of a study to consider the scale, location and nature of forestry expansion in Britain.

[Archive] Forestry Expansion - a study of technical, economic and ecological factors - Sporting recreational use of land

This is one of a series of papers which form part of a study to consider the scale, location and nature of forestry expansion in Britain.

[Archive] Forestry Expansion - a study in technical, economic and ecological factors - New planting methods, costs and returns

This is one of a series of papers which form part of a study to consider the scale, location and nature of forestry expansion in Britain.

[Archive] Forestry Expansion - a study of technical, economic and ecological factors - International environmental impacts: acid rain and the greenhouse effect

This is one of a series of papers which form part of a study to consider the scale, location and nature of forestry expansion in Britain.

[Archive] Forestry Expansion - a study of technical, economic and ecological factors - The demand for forests for recreation

This is one of a series of papers which form part of a study to consider the scale, location and nature of forestry expansion in Britain.

[Archive] Forestry Expansion - a study of technical, economic and ecological factors - UK demand for the supply of wood and wood products

This is one of a series of papers which form part of a study to consider the scale, location and nature of forestry expansion in Britain.

[Archive] Forestry Expansion - a study of technical, economic and ecological factors - The long term global demand for the supply of wood

This is one of a series of papers which form part of a study to consider the scale, location and nature of forestry expansion in Britain.

[Archive] Forestry Expansion - a study of technical, economic and ecological factors - Forestry and the conservation and management of landscape

This is one of a series of papers which form part of a study to consider the scale, location and nature of forestry expansion in Britain.

[Archive] Forestry Expansion - a study in technical, economic and ecological factors - The agricultural demand for land: Its availability and cost for forestry

This is one of a series of papers which form part of a study to consider the scale, location and nature of forestry expansion in Britain.

[Archive] Forestry Expansion - a study of technical, economic and ecological factors - The impacts of forestry expansion on water quality and quantity

This is one of a series of papers which form part of a study to consider the scale, location and nature of forestry expansion in Britain.

[Archive] Forestry Expansion - a study of technical, economic and ecological factors - Forestry in the rural economy

This is one of a series of papers which form part of a study to consider the scale, location and nature of forestry expansion in Britain.

[Archive] Forestry Expansion - a study in technical, economic and ecological factors - Assessing the returns to the economy and to society from investments in forestry

This is one of a series of papers which form part of a study to consider the scale, location and nature of forestry expansion in Britain.

[Archive] Sawmilling accuracy for bandsaws cutting British softwoods

The dimensional accuracy with which timber is sawn is important both for its marketability and for its economic production. This Bulletin describes quality control techniques that can be used for sampling and measuring sawn timber taken from the production line in softwood sawmills. The dimensions obtained from the measuring process can be used to quantify […]

[Archive] The supply and demand for wood in the United Kingdom

This paper consists of two main parts. The larger part is concerned with new models of wood product demand that have been developed at the Forestry Commission. The rest of the paper then takes these models and, comparing them with future forecasts of UK roundwood production, examines the likely future raw material balance for wood […]

[Archive] Research for practical arboriculture

This Bulletin records the proceedings of a seminar held at York University in April 1990, organised jointly by the Arboricultural Association and the Forestry Commission. The seminar was the third of its kind, held every 5 years, since 1980, updating the arboriculture industry on current arboriculture research in the United Kingdom. Twenty-six papers are presented […]

[Archive] Ash dieback - a survey of non-woodland trees

During the summer of 1987 a survey of dieback in non-woodland ash trees was undertaken in Great Britain. After excluding certain areas due to their known low ash population, two hundred 10 km squares were visited and detailed data collected on the condition of ash in a plot selected within each square. Information was obtained […]

[Archive] Monitoring of forest condition in Britain - 1990

The results of the 1990 forest condition monitoring programme are presented. A total of 7644 trees were assessed in the main Forestry Commission monitoring programme in 1990. Five species were examined: Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), Norway spruce (P. abies), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), oak (Quercus spp.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica), distributed over 319 sites. This […]

[Archive] Honey fungus

Honey fungus is one of the commonest root diseases of trees and shrubs in the world. It can kill an enormous range of plants and also causes decay in standing trees. It is rarely a major problem in woodland although it sometimes kills large groups of conifers in young plantations. The disease is more serious […]

[Archive] Urban trees - A survey of street trees in Britain

Little information is available on the growth rates of urban trees. Trees that survive the establishment phase often put on so little growth that they appear moribund. Conversely, problems occur when a fast growing or large species is successfully established and ‘outgrows’ its living space. There is a need to build up a database of […]

[Archive] Forest fertilisation in Britain

In Britain the use of fertilisers has greatly increased the productivity of forests growing on nutrient-poor soils. In fact, many sites could not otherwise have been successfully afforested. From the early pioneering work of Stirling-Maxwell to the present day, the Forestry Commission has continually tested rates and types of fertiliser and methods of application. A […]

[Archive] De-icing salt damage to trees and shrubs

The damage caused by de-icing salt is a serious, but often underestimated, problem which affects substantial numbers of roadside trees and shrubs both in Britain and abroad. This Bulletin has resulted from an extensive review of the world literature on the subject; the findings fall into four distinct categories which comprise its four chapters. Chapter […]

[Archive] Treeshelters

Treeshelters offer a convenient solution to many of the problems faced during the establishment of trees in Britain. They can reduce the losses caused by mammal damage and improve the growing environment of the young tree. But what are their limitations? Are they always the answer? This handbook, using data from over 200 Forestry Commission […]

[Archive] Forestry practice

Forestry Practice has become the standard textbook for forestry students, forest and woodland growers, owners, managers and planners in Great Britain. This latest edition takes into account the considerable advances and changes in silviculture during the five years since the last edition. This includes a completely new chapter devoted to planning for second rotation plantations […]

[Archive] The impact of Government intervention on private forest management in England and Wales

This report presents the results of an enquiry into the influence of taxation and subsidies in forestry on the management of private woodlands in England and Wales. The aim of the study has been to clarify the critical elements in the management decisions of private woodland owners. The main feature distinguishing this study from others […]

[Archive] Edge management in woodlands

This paper presents the proceedings of a symposium held at Alice Holt Lodge on 17 October 1989. It contains 12 papers and a discussion section.

[Archive] Factors affecting the natural regeneration of oak in upland Britain

This review collates information on the natural regeneration of oak (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur) in upland Britain and the factors which influence it.

[Archive] Price-size curves for broadleaves

This paper sets out the techniques used to survey and analyse prices, discusses the relevant factors in the price formation process, and presents price-size curves for a variety of crops.

[Archive] Forestry Expansion - a study of technical, economic and ecological factors - Introduction, summary and conclusions

The purposes of this study are to draw together up-to-date assessments of the main factors bearing on decisions about the broad direction of forestry expansion; to use this to inform discussions of the location and type of forestry that would best meet the demands of society for wood products, jobs, recreation, amenity, wildlife conservation, carbon […]

[Archive] Forestry Expansion - a study of technical, economic and ecological factors - British forestry in 1990

This is one of a series of papers which form part of a study to consider the scale, location and nature of forestry expansion in Britain.

[Archive] Forestry Commission 70th Annual Report and Accounts 1989-90

Printed by HMSO, for the year ending 31 March 1990.

[Archive] Nitrogen deficiency in sitka spruce plantations

On moorland and heathland soils in Great Britain nitrogen deficiency can severely restrict the growth of certain conifer species, including Sitka spruce, the main commercial species. Until the 1970s this was thought to be due solely to competition from heather and was commonly known as ‘heather check’. However, increased planting of Sitka spruce on very […]

[Archive] The timbers of farm woodland trees

Farmers are being encouraged to grow trees on surplus agricultural land as part of government policy effected through the Farm Woodland Scheme. The efficient production of timber is profitable, providing raw material for industry, yet it does not preclude other important objectives such as landscape design, amenity considerations, game management and wildlife conservation. The production […]

[Archive] Nursery stock root systems and tree establishment - a literature review

This Occasional Paper is a literature review which was undertaken in 1984 to establish what is known about tree root systems, their size in relation to the shoot and the nutrient/moisture status needed for good root regeneration after planting. The specific objectives of the review were:1. to prepare a report summarising the available in formation […]

[Archive] Mid diameter volume tables (third edition)

This Field Book provides tables for estimating the volume of logs using the traditional mid diameter method. Although it is a very accurate method, it becomes less accurate as the length increases. The volume is derived from the product of the length of the log and its mean cross-sectional area. In practice it is the […]

[Archive] Forests and surface water acidification

This Bulletin reviews the evidence for a suggested forest effect in the acidification of surface waters in Great Britain. Acid deposition from the atmosphere within susceptible areas of Britain has affected fresh water flora and fauna, causing the decline and in some instances the complete loss of fish populations. Currently there is a debate about […]

[Archive] Barn owl conservation in forests

Barn owl numbers have declined over much of the British Isles. However, in northern Britain afforestation has resulted in some local increases. Young plantations with rank grassy vegetation contain large numbers of field voles which are the main food of barn owls. Abandoned farm buildings provide nest sites for the owls, but these deteriorate and […]

[Archive] Monitoring of forest condition in Great Britain - 1989

The results of the 1989 forest condition monitoring programme are presented. A total of 7436 trees were assessed, with the species being restricted to Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), Norway spruce (P. abies), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), oak (Quercus spp.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica). Crown condition is now assessed on the basis of a variety of […]

[Archive] Poplars for wood production and amenity

The eleven chapters comprising this Bulletin cover the botany, cultivation, performances and utilisation of poplars and poplar timber. The genus Populus comprises some 32 species classified according to their botanical characters into five sections and one sub-section. Of these, the sections Aigeiros (the black poplars) and Tacamahaca (the balsam poplars) are of commercial significance to […]

[Archive] Classification and presentation of softwood sawlogs

These recommendations are agreed by Forest Enterprise, the British Timber Merchants' Association, and the UK Softwood Sawmillers Association. The normal practice of the Forestry Commission will be to classify parcels of sawlogs offered for sale into four categories: green, red, short green, and log pole, for which descriptions are given. The FC aims to maximise […]

[Archive] Champion trees in the British Isles (3rd edition)

This listing includes species down to a considerable degree of rarity and only the very rarest, which have too few known specimens to compete effectively as tallest and stoutest are excluded; but where one specimen is clearly of outstanding size it is included even where very few are known. The more important cultivars are included. […]

[Archive] Assessment of tree condition

Forest condition is now assessed annually in most European countries. This Field Book provides details of assessment procedures used by the Forestry Commission in their main monitoring programme. Although this programme is restricted to Sitka spruce, Norway spruce, Scots pine, oak and beech, the techniques that are described are applicable with little or no modification […]

[Archive] A new series of windthrow monitoring areas in upland Britain

This Paper discusses a network of eight windthrow monitoring areas together with reference anemometers and wind vanes which have been established in forests in remote upland areas of Britain. The sites chosen will allow study of the onset and progression of windthrow in productive plantations. Details of the associated wind climate will also be obtained. […]

[Archive] Forest bird communities

This review discusses the ecology and management of forest bird communities in relation to silvicultural practices in the British uplands. The review provides forest managers with information on how bird communities function in a dynamic forest environment and what foresters can do to achieve a richer, better balanced avifauna within their forest. It also provides […]

[Archive] Forest employment survey 1988 - 1989

This survey covers employment in the Forestry Commission, the private sector and primary wood processing. It enumerates both direct labour and contractors, counting part-time and contract employment as the actual time worked and expressing the total as whole-job equivalents. It includes employees and the self-employed, between whom no distinction is made.

[Archive] Forestry Commission 69th Annual Report and Accounts 1988-89

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 31 March 1989.

[Archive] Goshawks: their status, requirements and management

The goshawk is a large bird of prey which was re-introduced into Britain in the 1960s and 1970s. Populations are now beginning to expand, particularly in areas with large forests, and where human persecution is not a limiting factor. It is predicted that goshawks will become relatively common in some parts of Britain by the […]

[Archive] A systems approach to forest operations planning and control

Computer-based systems are now commonplace in most forestry operating environments. One of the inherent features of forestry everywhere is the amount of data collected over long periods of time. Information technology has made the storage and analysis of these data a cost effective reality. Never before has the forest manager been better placed to call […]

[Archive] Taxation of woodlands

This Bulletin explains the taxation of woodlands for the benefit of woodland occupiers (and their advisers). Part 1 deals with income tax and corporation tax following the major changes to the taxation of commercial woodlands made by the Finance Act 1988. Part 2 deals with the application of capital gains tax to disposals of woodlands. […]

[Archive] Land capability for forestry in Eastern Scotland

The land capability classification for forestry is based on an assessment of the degree of limitation imposed by the physical factors of soil, topography and climate on the growth of trees and on silvicultural practices. The principal tree species considered are those broadleaves and conifers commonly grown in Britain, and the classification assumes a skilled […]

[Archive] Urban forestry practice

Wherever trees are planted their basic needs have to be met if healthy growth is to be promoted. This Handbook gives practical advice on the establishment and subsequent management of trees and woodlands in urban and urban fringe areas. The Handbook has been designed for a wide audience, reflecting the varied disciplines and requirements involved […]

[Archive] Land capability for forestry in Northern Scotland

The land capability classification for forestry is based on an assessment of the degree of limitation imposed by the physical factors of soil, topography and climate on the growth of trees and on silvicultural practices. The principal tree species considered are those broadleaves and conifers commonly grown in Britain, and the classification assumes a skilled […]

[Archive] History of Brandon Central Depot (Volume 3) 1946 - 1988

Appendices to the history of Brandon Central Depot.

[Archive] Design of the census of woodland and trees 1979-82

The Forestry Commission carried out censuses of Woodlands and Trees in 1924, 1938, 1947—49, 1965-67 and most recently between 1979 and 1982. Only two of these data collection and collation exercises came close to being a census in the sense of being a complete enumeration. The first was in 1924 when questionnaires were submitted by […]

[Archive] Mechanical characteristics of sitka spruce

This Occasional Paper details a series of tests which have been carried out on 10 sitka spruce trees about 15 metres tall in order to determine their mechanical characteristics. This information is necessary for the design of model trees for use in wind-tunnel studies of airflow over forests.

[Archive] Monitoring of forest condition in the United Kingdom - 1988

The condition of forests in the United Kingdom is monitored through two projects undertaken by the Forestry Commission. The first, referred to throughout this publication as the long-term monitoring project, was started in 1984. It was developed in response to a growing concern that air pollution might be affecting the condition of trees in Britain. […]

[Archive] The 1987 storm: impacts and responses

The storm which struck south-east England on the night of 15/16 October 1987 was the worst in the region since 1703: it caused more damage to woodlands and trees than any other recorded gale in Britain. Some 4 million cubic metres of timber were blown, equivalent to about 5 years’ cut in the seven worst […]

[Archive] Dendroctonus micans in Britain - it's biology and control

The great European spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus micans) was first identified as a breeding species in Britain in 1982. This insect’s distribution, pest status, biology, life cycle and control methods are described. Although its present population is limited to Wales, the English West Midlands and Lancashire, it is well established. Infestations are characterised by scattered […]

[Archive] The use of herbicides in the forest (3rd edition)

The Book contains recommendations for the use of herbicides in the forest.

[Archive] Land capability for forestry in South-East Scotland

The land capability classification for forestry is based on an assessment of the degree of limitation imposed by the physical factors of soil, topography and climate on the growth of trees and on silvicultural practices. The principal tree species considered are those broadleaves and conifers commonly grown in Britain, and the classification assumes a skilled […]

[Archive] Land capability for forestry in Western Scotland

The land capability classification for forestry is based on an assessment of the degree of limitation imposed by the physical factors of soil, topography and climate on the growth of trees and on silvicultural practices. The principal tree species considered are those broadleaves and conifers commonly grown in Britain, and the classification assumes a skilled […]

[Archive] Land capability for forestry in South-West Scotland

The land capability classification for forestry is based on an assessment of the degree of limitation imposed by the physical factors of soil, topography and climate on the growth of trees and on silvicultural practices. The principal tree species considered are those broadleaves and conifers commonly grown in Britain, and the classification assumes a skilled […]

[Archive] History of Brandon Central Depot (Volume 2) 1946 - 1988

Appendices to the history of Brandon Central Depot

[Archive] History of Brandon Central Depot (Volume 1) 1946 - 1988

A history of Brandon Central Depot containing the following sections – introduction and acknowledgements, the site, buildings, staff, harvesting in the forest, pole supply – input, products and markets, operations and processes, organisation and management, administration, redevelopment, closure.

[Archive] Lichens in southern woodlands

A working knowledge of lichen ecology is important to most foresters. The study of lichens can reveal a good deal of important information about the age, health and management history of the woodlands where they are found – whether or not it is ‘ancient' woodland, for example, or the prevalence of atmospheric pollution in the […]

[Archive] Forest nursery herbicides (1989)

In this Occasional paper information is given on the application of forest nursery herbicides. Much of this information is based on Forestry Commission trials. A brief description of the types of herbicide is given followed by information on the various herbicides which can be used at the different growth stages of forest nursery stock.Note: This […]

[Archive] Trends in forestry research 1982-1988

Increasing interest in forestry in Britain has followed the search for alternative land uses to agriculture and the growing importance of conservation. Research requirements have adapted to this new situation. This Occasional Paper looks at recent trends and seeks to ask whether resources are reasonably matched to requirements. At least seven public agencies are engaged […]

[Archive] Provisional code of practice for the use of pesticides in Great Britain

The Code of Practice in this Occasional Paper is made for the guidance of users of pesticides in forestry. It amplifies the requirements both of the Control of Pesticides Regulations 1986 and the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations, 1988. The code is intended to cover the use of pesticides for the protection of […]

[Archive] Forestry Commission 68th Annual Report and Accounts 1987-88

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 31 March 1988.

[Archive] The silviculture and yield of wild cherry

The silvicultural characteristics of Prunus avium are described, based on a study in which over 40 stands throughout Britain were visited.

[Archive] Farm woodland planning

This Bulletin is intended to provide farmers and farm advisers who are planning to enter farm woodland planting and management with the management information required to plan and budget the operation. It seeks to achieve this by providing the facts farmers need to gear up their businesses in terms of planning, financial and operational aspects […]

[Archive] Forest health surveys 1987 Part 2: Analysis and interpretation

The aim of this part of the report is to interpret, as far as possible, the results of the 1987 survey of forest health (Bulletin 74) by attempting to establish the cause(s) of the low crown densities and the crown discoloration observed in five of our most important tree species: Sitka spruce, Norway spruce, Scots […]

[Archive] British softwoods: properties and uses

This Bulletin provides the information for specifiers and users to make maximum use of the increasing British resource of softwoods. Its main purpose is to establish the link between requirements for current and potential end-uses and the properties and performance of these commercially important timbers. A guide to the properties of the individual species is […]

[Archive] Silvicultural principles for upland restocking

Current upland restocking practice was reviewed in Forestry Commission Leaflet 84 Guide to upland restocking practice. Recent research, both in the UK and overseas, has led to a greater understanding of the establishment process, and the intention here is to draw this body of knowledge together as a basis for the design of improved systems […]

[Archive] Natural regeneration of broadleaves

Natural regeneration can broadly be defined as raising a forest crop without resorting to planting, direct sowing or coppicing. It is the random nature of exactly where young trees spring up on a site and sometimes of the species which grow that marks out natural regeneration, not freedom from man’s influence. Indeed, many naturally regenerated […]

[Archive] Thinning control

This Field Book provides a simple guide to the control of volume to be removed when marking a thinning. There are three sections. The first section describes the Yield Class system and the assessment of yield class in a stand. The second section covers thinning practice, that is, the type, intensity and cycle of thinning, […]

[Archive] Farm woodland practice

Today it is possible to create woodlands which not only provide income from timber but which also fit well in to the landscape, and offer an enriched habitat for wildlife and game. To grow trees successfully so that they thrive and are an asset to the farm requires a sound knowledge of the different tree […]

[Archive] Forestry section proceedings from the British Association for the Advancement of Science Annual Meeting 1986

The paper explores the contribution that science has made to forestry and woodland management and looks at the scientific prospects and limitations for the future. It explains the reasons why Britain has become so low in self-sufficiency of wood products and charts the steps successive Governments have taken to change this, starting with the creation […]

[Archive] Farming and forestry - proceedings of a conference held at Loughborough University 1986

The Farming and Forestry Conference at Loughborough University in September 1986 was held as a result of the dual realisation that something needed to be done, and soon, to cut back and bring under control the over-production of key agricultural products, and secondly that farm woodlands provided one of the few realistic alternatives. The conference […]

[Archive] The green spruce aphid and sitka spruce provenances in Britain

This Occasional Paper describes the damage caused by the green spruce aphid, Elatobium abietinum, to sitka spruce growing in Britain. Following an outbreak of this aphid in South Wales in 1980, it was possible to compare the impact and recovery of shoot growth in experimental plots at Rhondda Forest of a IU FRO provenance collection […]

[Archive] Forestry Commission 67th Annual Report and Accounts 1986-87

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 31 March 1987.

[Archive] Beech bark disease

Beech bark disease is considered to be the most serious disease affecting British beech, although its severity varies geographically and temporally. Early records indicate that the disease was first observed at least 150 years ago, but must certainly have been affecting trees from a much earlier date. The insect and fungus both occur over much […]

[Archive] Population biology and control of the pine beauty moth

This Bulletin presents the papers which were given at a workshop held at the end of 1984 to bring together a wide range of researchers, within and outwith the Forestry Commission, working on problems presented by the new and sudden occurrence in the late 1970s of large scale and severe outbreaks of the Pine beauty […]

[Archive] Advances in practical arboriculture

This Bulletin presents the proceedings of a seminar held at the University of York, 10-12 April 1985, by the Forestry Commission and the Arboricultural Association.

[Archive] Rhododendron ponticum as a forest weed

Rhododendron ponticum is an evergreen shrub which forms dense thickets up to 5 metres in height. The large purple blooms appear in spring and are an attractive sight which has become commonplace especially on forested slopes in the west of the British Isles. Foresters are familiar with it as a most intractable weed, indeed control […]

[Archive] Price-size curves for conifers

This Bulletin describes the development of the long-term price assumptions used by the Forestry Commission for estimating future timber revenues.

[Archive] Forest Health Surveys 1987 Part 1: Results

An annual forest health survey has been conducted in Great Britain since 1984 (Binns et al., 1985, 1986; Innes el al., 1986). From the outset, the survey has been designed to determine both the extent of any deterioration in crown condition and, if possible, its causes. Over the years a number of changes have been […]

[Archive] Choice of seed origins for the main forest species in Britain

Choice of seed origin can be a very critical stage in forest management, in some cases resulting either in flourishing plantations or else in complete failure. This Bulletin is directed at both manager and researchers. The former are succinctly guided to appropriate seed origins for their site conditions and objectives, and equally importantly warned off […]

[Archive] The yield of sweet chestnut coppice

This Bulletin reports on coppice growth and yield in relation to site and various stand characteristics and shows how volume or weight per hectare may be predicted from very simple measurements.

[Archive] Census of woodland and trees 1979-82

This Bulletin describes the survey methods adopted for the census of woodlands and trees carried out between 1979 and 1982, discusses the main results of the investigation, and compares them with those of past surveys. It supplements the area and volume results which have already been published for counties and Conservancies in England and Wales, […]

[Archive] The management of red deer in upland forests

This Bulletin is primarily concerned with the management of resident populations of red deer in commercial forests, and gives practical prescriptions for deer management based upon sound data collection and scientific method. All such prescriptions must be aimed at particular, well-defined deer populations occupying discrete ranges. There is an important emphasis throughout upon predictive management, […]

[Archive] Predicting the productivity of sitka spruce on upland sites in northern Britain

The research described in this Bulletin integrates the main environmental factors influencing the growth of Sitka spruce at high elevations in order to estimate future yield class.

[Archive] Air pollution and forestry

The aim of this Bulletin is to summarise the current information available on the interactions between air pollution and forests. While it is primarily concerned with Great Britain, air pollution is an international problem, so information from other countries has been included. Pollution from point sources, such as aluminium smelters and brickworks, has not been […]

[Archive] Top diameter sawlog tables

This Field Book describes the top diameter method for estimating the volume of logs which is usually confined to softwood sawlogs. This method is less time consuming and so cheaper than the more traditional mid diameter method and is best suited to batches of uniform length logs. The description of logs in terms of top […]

[Archive] Forest insects

The expansion in forestry planting since the end of the first world war has provided foresters in Britain with a great deal of fresh knowledge about the particular insect problems associated with these new habitats in different phases of crop life. Most of the 280 species described here are common subjects of enquiry, although some […]

[Archive] Trees and weeds

Landscaped sites are often seeded with vigorous varieties ot grass and legume species, which, while reducing soil erosion and giving an attractive green appearance, may kill young trees or check their growth. Weeds compete with trees for moisture, nutrients and light; but they can also interfere by releasing toxins, modifying soil and air temperatures, and […]

[Archive] Evaluation of forestry research

The subject of evaluation is important to research managers generally and especially to those concerned with the formulation and direction of programmes. Evaluation is normally impracticable at the programme level; instead attention must be concentrated at the level of the project. The purposes served by such evaluation are three: to increase the awareness of research […]

[Archive] Forestry Commission 66th Annual Report and Accounts 1985-86

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 31 March 1986.

[Archive] Use of broadleaved species in upland forests (FC Leaflet 88 - 1986)

The purpose of this leaflet is to give practical guidance on how best to select and establish broadleaved tree species.

[Archive] The use of herbicides in the forest (2nd edition)

This is the first revision of the original 1983 edition of this Booklet and incorporates recent developments in herbicides, equipment and methods of application.

[Archive] Forestry Practice (10th edition)

A summary of methods of establishing, maintaining and harvesting forest crops with advice on planning and other management considerations for owners, agents and foresters.

[Archive] Forestry Commission 65th Annual Report and Accounts 1984-85

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 31 March 1985

[Archive] The Gwent Small Woods Project 1979-84

This five year experiment in woodland management arose out of earlier investigations into the state of small woodlands in Gwent by the County Council, and by the Dartington Amenity Research Trust on behalf of the Countryside Commission. The experiment was carried out under the direction of a steering group drawn from a wide range of […]

[Archive] Conifers (3rd edition)

Alan Mitchell’s fascinating guide to conifers features 40 types: two natives, the rest brought to Britain over the years.

[Archive] Broadleaves

It’s impossible to imagine the British landscape without its broadleaved trees. Horse chestnut, holly, beech and birch – all have long been admired and valued not only because of their timber-producing capacity but also for their beauty.The broadleaves of Britain form part of that vast natural forest of northern Europe which once stretched from the […]

[Archive] Mid diameter sawlog tables

This Booklet provides information on the mid diameter method, which is the traditional method for estimating the volume of logs. The first edition of this work was called the Metric volume ready reckoner for round timber.

[Archive] Thinning control (3rd edition)

This booklet is designed for field use. It provides a simple guide to the control of volume to be removed when marking a thinning. There are three sections. The first section describes the Yield Class system and the assessment of yield class in a stand. The second section covers thinning practice, that is, the type, […]

[Archive] Forestry Commission Annual Report and Accounts 1983-1984

Published for HMSO for the year ending 31 March 1984.

[Archive] Technology transfer in forestry

This Bulletin contains papers presented at the second Subject Group meeting held at Edinburgh University, Edinburgh, Scotland, 25 July-1 August 1983. The need for efficient transfer of new forestry knowledge is critical throughout all the various IUFRO Subject Groups. Group S6.08 serves as a clearing-house for ideas related to procedures, processes and methods for application […]

[Archive] Silviculture of broadleaved woodland

The object of this Bulletin is to assist all who are concerned with the management or cultivation of broadleaves. Much practical silvicultural advice is included and many recommendations are made with the main emphasis on the silvicultural techniques used to grow good quality timber. But broadleaved woodlands are important for much more than timber production […]

[Archive] Forestry Commission 63rd Annual Report and Accounts 1982-1983

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 31 March 1983.

[Archive] Forestry Commission 62nd Annual Report and Accounts 1981-1982

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 31 March 1982.

[Archive] A key to eucalypts in Britain and Ireland

This Booklet describes the species named in an Arboriculture Research Note on eucalypts in Britain by Evans (1980) plus a few others, and the principal species grown in Ireland referred to by Mooney (1960).The most successful species are from areas of temperate climate in Australia and are relatively frost tolerant. The characters used are those […]

[Archive] The use of chemicals (other than herbicides) in forest and nursery

This is the first Booklet dedicated to chemicals other than herbicides used in forestry. It is suggested that this publication is kept with its companion volume The use of herbicides in the forest (Booklet 51) to give a comprehensive reference to the use of all chemicals in the forest. Although produced primarily for internal use […]

[Archive] A catalogue of phytophagous insects and mites on trees in Great Britain

The main objective of this catalogue is to bring some uniformity into exchanges concerning forest entomology. It consists of three lists: a basic one and two supplementary. The basic list includes all species in Pests and diseases of forest plantation trees (F G Brown, 1968) occurring in Britain, to which have been added many others […]

[Archive] Research on Dutch elm disease in Europe

This Bulletin contains the proccedings of the European Economic Community Research Seminar, Guernsey, Channel Islands, 30th March — 1st April 1982. The papers summarise the results of recent research undertaken by scientists from six members of the European Community.

[Archive] Conifer Lachnids in Britain

This Bulletin contains Field keys and morphological keys with descriptions and illustrations for the identifications of the 27 aphids of the family Lachnidae known to occur on conifers in Britain. The strong influence of their host plant upon these insects and the impact some of them have on the growth of forest trees and amenity […]

[Archive] Forestry Commission 61 st Annual Report and Accounts 1980-81

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 31 March 1981.

[Archive] Seed manual for ornamental trees and shrubs

The aims of this manual are two-fold. Firstly it presents the practical plant propagator with all the relevant information he needs to ensure reliable production from seed of the more commonly grown ornamental broadleaved species. It includes the latest results of the Forestry Commission’s own work and summarises existing in formation gleaned from experienced nurserymen […]

[Archive] Broadleaves in Britain: addresses, supplementary papers and discussions

The Forestry Commission and the Institute of Chartered Foresters organised a symposium under the title 'Broadleaves in Britain: Future Management and Research' at Loughborough, Leics., on 7-9 July 1982. This Occasional Paper contains supplementary papers and addresses which, in combination with the set of papers published previously (Broadleaves in Britain, edited by D.C. Malcolm, J. […]

[Archive] Yield models for forest management

This booklet, with its associated yield models and curves, replaces Forestry Commission Booklet Number 34 Forest Management Tables (Metric) by G. J. Hamilton and J. M. Christie, which was published by HMSO in 1971. Yield models can be constructed to simulate the effects of any silvicultural treatment, and the ‘normal yield tables’ included in the […]

[Archive] Investment appraisal in forestry

The purpose of this Booklet is to outline the basic concepts of investment appraisal as they apply to forestry, to provide tables of use in appraisal and to illustrate their application to a variety of cases in forestry.

[Archive] Spatial analysis of forest growth

This paper presents an abridged account of a study by the author in 1978, which is intended to develop the understanding of spatial variations in the growth of trees and refinement of the analytical techniques used. The results of the yield analysis at the national level are applied on a compartment basis in two study […]

[Archive] Aerial application of insecticide against pine beauty moth

During 1979, further spraying operations of Lodgepole pine forests in northern Scotland with fenitrothion, to control outbreaks of Pine beauty moth were necessary using the ultra-low volume technique, and monitoring operations were undertaken partly to confirm the observations of the previous year, but also, in some instances, to provide additional information on the extent of […]

[Archive] Research for practical arboriculture - proceedings of the Forestry Commission / Arboricultural Association seminar at Preston, February 1980

This Paper presents the report of the seminar, which represents more an interim review rather than a record of completed research. The seminar covered the following main subject area: amenity tree management, better value trees, planting on man-made sites, and clonal selection.

[Archive] Forestry Commission 60th Annual Report and Accounts 1979-1980

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 31 March 1980.

[Archive] Progress reports (1973-79) by Forestry Commission GB and Forestry Division NI for the eleventh Commonwealth Forestry Conference 1980

Progress reports (1973-79) by Forestry Commission GB and Forestry Division NI for the eleventh Commonwealth Forestry Conference 1980, covering for each organisation, chapters on – forest policy, forest management, services to management, harvesting and market planning, utilisation of forest products and forest products research, and a statistical summary.

[Archive] Establishment of trees on regraded colliery spoil heaps

Between October 1976 and September 1977, a critical appraisal was conducted by the Forestry Commission Research and Development Division into the problems of the establishment and management of trees and other woody plants on regraded colliery spoil heaps. Further supporting evidence has since been collected. This report summarises the evidence accumulated on tree growth on […]

[Archive] Forestry and farming in upland Britain

The papers presented here were written for the 1979 meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science at Heriot Watt University in Edinburgh. The range of subject is comprehensive, covering productive agriculture and forestry and their future inter-relations in the uplands, wildlife conservation, public recreation, landscaping, and social needs and implications.

[Archive] The forestry mission to China 1979

The need for a visit to China by British foresters was first proposed in January 1978 to the Chairman of the Great Britain – China Centre by the Earl Bathurst when President of the Royal Forestry Society of England, Wales and Northern Ireland. The visit subsequently followed, sponsored and arranged by the Centre, and coincided […]

[Archive] Forestry Commission 59th Annual Report and Accounts 1978-1979

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 31 March 1979.

[Archive] The use of chemicals in the Forestry Commission

This Paper deals with the use of chemicals in the forest and forest nursery. Common forest insect pests, diseases, weeds and animals are listed in alphabetical order by their common names together with pesticides recommended for their control, dosage rates and application methods. The information in this Paper was first published in Forestry Commission internal […]

[Archive] Tree planting on man-made sites in Wales

The purpose of this paper is to record for the wide range of sites the Forestry Commission has restored in Wales, the methods used and the successes and failures of the plantings, the objectives of which have varied from timber production to pure landscape planting. The Paper is intended as guidance to those who may […]

[Archive] Forestry Commission 58th Annual Report and Accounts 1977-1978

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 31 March 1978.

[Archive] Forestry Practice (9th edition)

A summary of methods of establishing, maintaining and harvesting forest crops with advice on planning and other management considerations for owners, agents and foresters.

[Archive] Standard time tables and output guides

The demand from private forestry for guidance on payment of workers has increased enormously over the past few years and to meet these needs, the Forestry Commission has decided to publish current tables in the form of a Booklet every few years.

[Archive] The landscape of forests and woods

This booklet is an extensive revision of Booklet 18 Forestry in the landscape published in 1966. The author has unique experience of landscaping British forests over many years, and her opinions on landscape design principles, which should be applied in forestry to obtain a satisfactory balance between beauty and function in the landscape, are admirably […]

[Archive] Managing small woodlands

Small woodlands, of various types, scattered widely over the countryside are a major feature of the landscape and form valuable assets for timber production, wildlife and game conservation. The purpose of this Booklet is to provide the basic information for the establishment and management of small woods emphasising ways and means of modifying forestry practice […]

[Archive] Control of pine beauty moth by fenitrothion in Scotland

This document is assembled from a series of individual reports written by scientists and technicians from a number of organisations which took part in an operation carried out at short notice, to monitor the spraying of forests in northern Scotland to control the outbreaks of Pine beauty moth.Note: This is an archive publication. Always consult […]

[Archive] The wood production outlook in Britain - a review

The increasing concern throughout the world about the future availability of fossil fuels and other finite resources has emphasised the need for appraising the balance of wood demand and supply into the next century, and in particular its implications for wood production and forest strategy in Great Britain. This led the Forestry Commissioners to invite […]

[Archive] Forestry Commission 57th Annual Report and Accounts 1976-77

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 31 March 1977.

[Archive] The place of forestry in England and Wales

A detailed review of forestry in England and Wales covering forest policy, the present status of forestry and the forest industry, and the potential for further planting.

[Archive] The safety of the herbicides 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T

This Bulletin contains information on the properties, manufacture and uses of 2, 4-D and 2, 4. 5-T as well as the possible side effects of these herbicides which are reviewed in detail.Note: This is an archive publication. Always consult the most recent guidance for up-to-date information.

[Archive] Forestry Commission Fifty-sixth Annual Report and Accounts 1975-1976

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 31 March 1976.

[Archive] Forest road planning

Forest roads are built to provide access to the forest for general management purposes and for the transport of timber to the market. The building of forest roads involves heavy capital expenditure and, in addition, there is a continuing charge for road maintenance. Against this, the actual cost of movement along roads is less, distance […]

[Archive] Evaluation of the contribution of forestry to economic development

At the Fifteenth Congress of the International Union of Forest Research Organisations (I.U.F.R.O.) held at Gainesville, Florida in March 1970, a Working Party was set up to consider methods of evaluating the contribution of Forestry to economic development. This Bulletin contains the papers presented at the meeting of this Working Party together with a report […]

[Archive] Aspects of thinning

This Bulletin contains the papers presented at a meeting of the International Union of Forest Research Organisations (IUFRO) Project Group P4.02 'Economics and Harvesting of Thinnings', held in Edinburgh from 30 September until 2 October 1974.Papers were invited on various aspects of thinning. The first session (Papers 1-7) mainly concerned the yield aspects of thinning. […]

[Archive] Forestry Commission Fifty-fifth Annual Report and Accounts 1974-1975

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 31 March 1975.

[Archive] Chemical control of weeds in the forest

This Booklet gives recommendations on the use of herbicides in British forests. It replaces Forestry Commission Leaflet 51, also entitled Chemical Control of Weeds in the Forest. Suitable types of equipment are generally described in Chapter 8, but detailed advice on the most suitable type and make of spraying equipment is not given as this […]

[Archive] Forest mensuration handbook

Measurement of timber is required for several purposes. The most obvious of these, perhaps, is the need to quantify forest produce for sale. Measurement of timber is also required in management, notably for planning purposes and for control of resources. This publication is intended to provide the information necessary to meet the needs of measurement […]

[Archive] Seed orchards

This Bulletin provides detailed information about all aspects of seed orchards, seed management and tree breeding. Spilt over 14 chapters, each written by separate specialists, the information presented is intended to provide a useful source of reference for practising orchardists and as a general textbook for university forestry courses which include tree breeding as a […]

[Archive] Production and use of tubed seedlings

The production and use of tubed conifer seedlings in Britain have been studied between 1968 and 1973 in an extensive research and development programme based initially on Canadian practice. Results from the many nursery and forest experiments are described and form the basis for practical recommendations (see Chapter 6) on raising and planting tubed seedlings.

[Archive] Forestry Commission Fifty-fourth Annual Report and Accounts 1973-1974

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 31 March 1974.

[Archive] Weeding in the forest: a work study approach

ln 1959, when the Forestry Commission’s annual expenditure on weeding in the forest exceeded £1 million for the first time, the Work Study Branch was instructed to study the problem in all its aspects. Work was initially concentrated on hand weeding and the tools associated with it. Later studies of chemical and mechanical methods have […]

[Archive] Field recognition of British elms

The elms described in this booklet are the species, varieties and hybrids commonly found in the countryside and parks, and at the roadside in towns. They are: English elm – Ulmus proceraWych elm – U. glabraSmooth-leaved elm – U. carpinifolia Gleditsch var. carpinifoliaCornish elm – U. carpinifolia var. cornubiensisWheatley elm – U. carpinifolia var. sarniensisDutch […]

[Archive] Fertilisers in the establishment of conifers in Wales and southern England

The purpose of this publication is to answer some of the questions commonly asked about the use of fertilisers in young forest crops in Southern Britain, that is south of the counties of Lancashire and Yorkshire, and to summarise the evidence on which recommended practice is based. The three main sources of information are: experiments […]

[Archive] Influence of spacing on crop characteristics & yield

The analysis described in this paper was designed to provide quantitative information on the effects of spacing on yield and the components of yield. It is preceded by a brief review of the more important features of the history of these spacing experiments.

[Archive] Fifty years of forestry research

This is an account of research work undertaken or supported by the Forestry Commission during the first fifty years of its life.

[Archive] The potential of western hemlock, western red cedar, grand fir and noble fir in Britain

This report is the result of the work of staff from many sections within the Forestry Commission and of the Princes Risborough Laboratory of the Building Research Establishment, Department of the Environment. In 1967 it was decided to undertake a comprehensive evaluation of the status and potential of the four most important “minor species” in […]

[Archive] Forest products in the united kingdom economy

The study represents the boldest attempt so far made in Britain to create a model of the two activities of wood-producing and primary processing of wood. On the basis of specified assumptions about future costs, interest rates, prices and demands for forest products, the author presents the results of linear programming solutions specifying rates of […]

[Archive] Work study in forestry

This Bulletin presents the papers produced for an international course on work study in forestry organised by the Forestry Commission for the joint FAO/ECE/ILO Committee on Forest Working Techniques and Training of Forest Workers held at Wymondham College, Norfolk, and Newton Rigg College of Agriculture and Forestry, Cumberland, in July 1971.

[Archive] Common trees

This Booklet provides basic information to help users identify common broadleaved and coniferous trees found in Britain. Thirty two species are included with drawings showing tree shapes, leaves and fruit/flowers.

[Archive] Volume tables for smallwood and round pitwood

The tables contained in this booklet are designed to provide estimates of volume from length and top diameter measurements. The length and top diameter specifications of pitwood are unique, and require tables specially designed to cater for these specifications. The smallwood tables provide volumes of small diameter roundwood, other than pitwood, where conventional length and […]

[Archive] Timber measurement for standing sales using tariff tables

The methods of measurement described in this Booklet are intended to be used primarily in connection with the sale of standing timber. The procedures described involve the use of tariff tables which have been used for this purpose by the Forestry Commission since 1956. The tariff system of measurement has subsequently proved efficient and reliable, […]

[Archive] Forest of Dean day visitor survey

This report is a description and assessment of research into the use of the Forest of D ean by day visitors.The central theme of the study is the prediction of recreational use. Dr R.J. Colenutt and local Forestry Commission staff carried out a survey of day visitors to the Forest of Dean during the summer […]

[Archive] Fifty-second Annual Report of the Forestry Commission 1971-1972

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 31 March 1972.

[Archive] Nursery practice

This Bulletin summarises results gained from the extensive programme of experiments and enquiries carried out by the Forestry Commission’s Research Division, from its inception in 1919 until the year 1970, together with the practical experience obtained in the large-scale raising of planting stocks for the national afforestation programme.

[Archive] Wildlife conservation in woodlands

The aim of this Booklet is to show how woodlands managed mainly for wood production can be improved as habitats for wildlife. It is concerned with identifying those features of woodlands which promote wildlife conservation and suggesting how these features can be maintained or introduced by management. It suggests that wildlife conservation can and should […]

[Archive] Conifers in the British Isles: a descriptive handbook

This booklet contains a wealth of information on conifers from roughly 580 estates, gardens, parks and collections. Some outstanding trees previously unrecorded have been found and the best of these have been included. Specimens outside the general range of their species in this country are given precedence even if of no great size. Trees recorded […]

[Archive] Fifty-first Annual Report of the Forestry Commission 1970-1971

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 31 March 1971.

[Archive] Conifer wooly aphids (Adelgidae) in Britain

This investigation has been mainly confined to providing descriptions for the identification of the various winged morphs of the adelgid species occurring in Britain. Morphological keys and descriptions, together with 32 figures, are given for the determination of the 14 winged morphs of the 9 species having alatae. In addition, a key to the adult […]

[Archive] Thinning control in British woodlands (metric)

This booklet provides a simple guide to the volume to be removed when thinning pure even-aged stands, or with suitable modifications, when thinning woods of mixed species and/or of uneven age. It replaces Booklet 17, the imperial version, from 1966.

[Archive] Metric conversion tables and factors for forestry

This Booklet builds on the information provided in Booklet 5 Conversion tables for research workers in forestry and agriculture. Additional tables have been added, while other tables of limited use have been removed. Numerous conversion factors have been included to enable conversions to be made for less frequently used units.

[Archive] Gwydyr forest in Snowdonia: a history

In 1920 the Forestry Commission began the transformation of a great expanse of steep hillside and moorland, around Betws-y-Coed in North Wales, into modern productive forest. The few old oakwoods that remained, and the remarkable scenery of riverside, lake and crag were treated with the consideration they merited when spruce, larch, pine and Douglas fir […]

[Archive] The plan of operations (metric)

With the general introduction of metric measurements in the dedicated and approved woodlands schemes with effect from October, 1971, the opportunity has been taken to re-examine the form of the standard Plan of Operations. This study has been carried out by the Forestry Commission in close consultation with the Timber Growers Organisation and the Scottish […]

[Archive] Forest management tables (metric)

The tables included in this Booklet are designed as aids to the management of forests in British conditions and where profitability is a primary objective. The Booklet is divided into four parts which are: The Yield Class System of Classifying Growth Potential Thinning Control Production Forecasting Yield Tables This publication is a revised, metric edition […]

[Archive] Windblow of Scottish forests in January 1968

A very severe westerly gale blew across central Scotland in the early hours of 15 January 1968. This report describes damage it did to forests and tells how representatives of the private woodland owners, the home timber trade and the Forestry Commission, appointed to an advisory committee called the Windblow Action Group, appraised and advised […]

[Archive] Operational research and the managerial economics of forestry

At the Fourteenth Congress of the International Union of Forest Research Organisations held in Munich in September, 1967 a Working Group was set up in the Economics Section, Section 31, to consider the contribution of operational research to studies in the field of the managerial economics of forestry. In September, 1970, members of this working […]

[Archive] Fiftieth Annual Report of the Forestry Commission 1969-1970

Published by HMSO, for the year ended 31 March 1970.

[Archive] Metric top diameter sawlog tables

This Booklet contains tables which give volumes of softwood sawlogs for given lengths and top diameters in metric units.

[Archive] Metric volume ready reckoner for round timber

These tables are the metric equivalent of the old established Hoppus tables and are used in exactly the same way. Mid diameters in centimetres are used instead of mid quarter girth in inches, lengths are expressed in metres rather than in feet, and volumes are given in cubic metres.

[Archive] The use of land for forestry within the proprietary land unit

This Bulletin presents the results of an enquiry by Dr. D. C. Nicholls into the factors that influence the use of land for forestry on private estates in England and Wales.

[Archive] Forests of central and southern Scotland

The region covered by this Booklet is the southern third of Scotland, from the headwaters of the Tay in Perthshire, down to the Border. It holds the two great cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, the widespread industries that have been built up over the central coalfields, the richest farmlands and also—rather surprisingly—one-third of Scotland’s forests […]

[Archive] Forest parks

Forest Parks have been established by the Forestry Commission in the belief that where mountainsides or other open country have been acquired in connection with the planting of extensive new forests, the whole should be open for public enjoyment. The first such Park, that in Argyll, was opened in 1935, and there are now seven […]

[Archive] Timber! Your growing investment

This Booklet contains a short account of the Commission’s achievements in the last fifty years, from 1919 until 1969.

[Archive] Journal of the Forestry Commission (No.36)

The Forestry Commission Journal was introduced as a way to communicate information on a wide range of topics which could not be communicated through ‘ordinary official channels’, and was intended to be a means of exchanging the opinions and experiences of all members of the staff.This thirty-sixth Journal includes information on: International course on construction […]

[Archive] Metric guide for forestry

This guide outlines proposals for the introduction of the metric system of weights and measures in British forestry and has been approved by the Forestry Commission and the Home Grown Timber Advisory Committee as a basis for more detailed planning by the individual sectors of the industry.

[Archive] Report and Accounts of the Forestry Commission 1966-1967

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 1966-1967

[Archive] Forestry in the Weald

This booklet sets out the natural setting of the woodlands of the Weald, a compact geographical region in the south-east of England. It discusses their history and economic value, and aims to show how they can be preserved both as scenery and as a source of useful timber.

[Archive] Forestry in the British Scene

The sole purpose of this Booklet is to depict forestry under a wide range of conditions in Britain. The text and the captions to the photographs are kept to the shortest length necessary to offer an explanation of the diversity of forest scenery. No attempt has been made to classify land in any ordered scheme; […]

[Archive] Public recreation in national forests: a factual study

This Booklet presents the results of investigations during 1963 and 1964 into the demand by the public for the recreational use of some national forests in England and Scotland. The research was intended principally as a methodological study, and it forms part of a wider investigation into the multiple use of forests in Britain.

[Archive] Know your broadleaves

All broadleaved trees belong to the great natural order of plants called the Dicotyledones, which are distinguished by having two seed-leaves or cotyledons in every seed. There are numerous families of these plants, many of which include both trees and smaller plants. Each family is defined, in a rather complicated way, on the basis of […]

[Archive] Rooting and stability in sitka spruce

The primary object of the investigations presented in this Bulletin has been to compare the tree’s ability to withstand wind forces when grown under various conditions. The only part of the root system measured is the portion which comes out of the ground when the tree is pulled over.

[Archive] Thinning control in British woodlands

Thinning control in British woodlands

[Archive] Timber extraction by light agricultural tractor

There are real advantages in using the same tractor for nursery work, ride mowing and extraction. Full utilisation of the tractor means low machine costs, fewer stores and easier maintenance. This booklet describes how, in Thetford Forest, the same light agricultural tractors which are used for forest nursery work and forest ride mowing are used […]

[Archive] Forest management and the harvesting and marketing of wood in Sweden

This Bulletin presents the findings of a team of Forestry Commission Officers who visited Sweden and Norway in 1965. The main object of the visit was to study managerial, organisational and technical practices which seemed likely to assist in promoting greater efficiency in the creation and maintenance of state and private woodlands at home and […]

[Archive] Journal of the Forestry Commission (No.35)

The Forestry Commission Journal was introduced as a way to communicate information on a wide range of topics which could not be communicated through ‘ordinary official channels’, and was intended to be a means of exchanging the opinions and experiences of all members of the staff.This thirty-fifth Journal includes information on: Royal Forestry Society—summer meeting […]

[Archive] Forty-sixth Annual Report of the Forestry Commissioners 1964-1965

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 30 September 1965.

[Archive] The plan of operations

This booklet has been prepared primarily for the guidance of landowners who have already brought, or who wish to bring, their woodlands into the Dedication or the Approved Woodland Schemes of the Forestry Commission. It contains information on the preparation of the plan and map and on management and record keeping.

[Archive] Forest management tables

The tables in this publication have been prepared with the object of providing a basis for the management of Forestry Commission plantations but they are equally applicable to any plantations which are managed primarily for profit. The Revised Yield Tables for Conifers in Great Britain published in 1953 (Forest Record Number 24) and all previous […]

[Archive] Forestry in the landscape

This booklet, written by Sylvia Crowe, draws largely on the impressions gained from her numerous and extensive visits to forests and woodlands in England, Scotland and Wales during the period when she was the Forestry Commission’s consultant. But the importance of the views expressed stems from Sylvia Crowe’s lifetime of experience, her constructive thought on […]

[Archive] Know your conifers

Conifers, or softwood trees, form a distinct group which has become very important in the world’s economy because they grow fast on poor soils even under harsh climates, and yield timbers that are very suitable for industry. They are now being planted and tended on a growing scale in most countries as a source of […]

[Archive] The great spruce bark beetle

The insect Dendroctonus micans, a bark beetle that is found in North West Europe, has for long been held, by forest entomologists, to constitute a potential threat to coniferous plantations in Great Britain, although it is not yet established here. Accordingly, in June 1964, Mr D. Bevan, the Commission’s senior forest entomologist, and Mr J.M.B. […]

[Archive] Forty-fifth Annual Report of the Forestry Commissioners 1963-1964

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 30 September 1964.

[Archive] Principal butt rots of conifers

This booklet is planned as a forester’s guide to the recognition of the three most common and damaging decays of standing conifers in Great Britain. The fungi that cause these rots are the basidiomycetes Heterobasidion annosum (formerly known as Fomes annosus), Armillaria mellea, and Polyporus schweinilzii. They are primary root rotting organisms, infection usually beginning in […]

[Archive] Journal of the Forestry Commission (No.34)

The Forestry Commission Journal was introduced as a way to communicate information on a wide range of topics which could not be communicated through ‘ordinary official channels’, and was intended to be a means of exchanging the opinions and experiences of all members of the staff.This thirty-fourth Journal includes information on: A tour of Finnish […]

[Archive] Rabbit control in woodlands

This Booklet includes all the practical methods of controlling and killing rabbits in this country. Much has been written on the rabbit as the quarry of the sportsman and poacher and it is upon their experience the author has had to draw. Neither of these have the extermination of the rabbit as their aim but […]

[Archive] Experiments on nutrition problems in forest nurseries - Volume 1

This Bulletin is an account of the nursery experimental work on nutrition carried out between 1945 and 1962 by a joint research effort between staff of the Rothamsted Experimental Station and the Research Branch of the Forestry Commission.

[Archive] Experiments on nutrition problems in forest nurseries - Volume 2 (supporting tables)

This second volume of information related to experiments on nursery nutrition contains a full statement of the detailed results for each individual experiment discussed in volume 1. The detailed tabular statements are grouped into several parts: A. General, B. Seedbeds, C. Transplants, Appendix and Supplementary Tables.

[Archive] The new forests of Dartmoor

In the decade before the war the Forestry Commission took practical steps to meet the increasing needs of the population for large tracts of wild country to be put at their disposal for recreational purposes by establishing Forest Parks, the first such Forest Park being that of Argyll, created by the Forestry Commission with the […]

[Archive] Extraction of conifer thinnings

Extraction accounts for between 25 per cent, and 75 per cent, of the total costs of production, that is all costs up to roadside ready for despatch, but excluding growing the trees; this percentage, however, depends on the amount of conversion (crosscutting and peeling) and the length and difficulty of the extraction. For this reason, […]

[Archive] Double drum winch technique

The use of the double drum winch is not familiar to many people and hence this Booklet has been produced in the hope that it will be of assistance to those using the double drum winch for the first time. There are many points of organisation and technique that play a large part in achieving […]

[Archive] Forestry Practice (8th edition)

A summary of methods of establishing forest nurseries and plantations with advice on other forestry questions for owners, agents and foresters.

[Archive] Journal of the Forestry Commission (No.33)

The Forestry Commission Journal was introduced as a way to communicate information on a wide range of topics which could not be communicated through ‘ordinary official channels’, and was intended to be a means of exchanging the opinions and experiences of all members of the staff.This thirty-third Journal includes information on: Rumania visit 22nd Sept. […]

[Archive] Forty-fourth Annual Report of the Forestry Commissioners 1962-1963

Published by HMSO, by for the year ending 30 September 1963.

[Archive] Pruning conifers for the production of quality timber

Experimental pruning of conifer crops was begun by the Forestry Commission in 1931 and the results of the experiments have been assessed up to date, but the final assessment, that of the pruned timber, still lies in the future. The main purpose of this Bulletin is to indicate the extent of the experimental work done […]

[Archive] Felling and converting thinnings by hand

The Work Study Section of the Forestry Commission has now (1963) been working on production operations for six years and this is a record of sound working methods observed during this period. The credit for developing these methods is due to Forest Workers and Foresters in various parts of the country and the authors have […]

[Archive] Mycorrhizal associations and calluna heathland afforestation

Ever since its establishment in 1919, the Forestry Commission has taken an active interest in the afforestation of heathlands dominated by the common heather, Calluna vulgaris. These heaths hold a large reserve of plantable land, but are difficult areas for the good growth of most timber trees. Much research work has therefore been carried out […]

[Archive] Journal of the Forestry Commission (No.32)

The Forestry Commission Journal was introduced as a way to communicate information on a wide range of topics which could not be communicated through ‘ordinary official channels’, and was intended to be a means of exchanging the opinions and experiences of all members of the staff.This thirty-second Journal includes information on: National forests and parks; […]

[Archive] Forty-third Annual Report of the Forestry Commissioners 1961-1962

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 30 September 1962.

[Archive] Report on Forest Research for the years ended March 1961 and 1962

The report of Forest Research for the years ending March 1961 and 1962.

[Archive] Aids to working conifer thinnings

This booklet is intended as a guide to some items of equipment which may not be widely known, and particularly to some which have been developed only in the past few years.The purpose of these tools is mainly to make work easier — reducing the effort involved or making operations quicker. Many are intended to […]

[Archive] Chalk downland afforestation

In 1961 the Forestry Commission had over 30 forests situated wholly or partly on chalk formations, scattered over the southern and eastern counties from Dorset to Kent and north to Yorkshire, while private estate owners are also engaged in the planting and management of extensive stretches of chalk down woodland. In 1927 the Commission began […]

[Archive] Journal of the Forestry Commission (No.31)

The Forestry Commission Journal was introduced as a way to communicate information on a wide range of topics which could not be communicated through ‘ordinary official channels’, and was intended to be a means of exchanging the opinions and experiences of all members of the staff.This thirty-first Journal includes information on: The Eighth British Commonwealth […]

[Archive] Forty-second Annual Report of the Forestry Commissioners 1960-1961

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 30 September 1961.

[Archive] Journal of the Forestry Commission (No.30)

The Forestry Commission Journal was introduced as a way to communicate information on a wide range of topics which could not be communicated through ‘ordinary official channels’, and was intended to be a means of exchanging the opinions and experiences of all members of the staff.This thirtieth Journal includes information on: A farewell note from […]

Report on Forest Research for the year ended March, 1960

The report of Forest Research for the year ending March 1959. The report includes:IntroductionSummary of the year’s workPart i Reports of work carried out by Forestry Commission research staff-Forest tree seed investigations -Nursery investigations -Silvicultural investigations in the forest: (a) south and central England and Wales (b) Scotland and northern England-Provenance studies -Poplars and elms […]

Report on Forest Research for the year ended March, 1960

The report of Forest Research for the year ending March 1959. The report includesIntroductionSummary of the year’s workPart i Reports of work carried out by Forestry Commission research staff-Forest tree seed investigations -Nursery investigations -Silvicultural investigations in the forest: (a) south and central England and Wales (b) Scotland and northern England-Provenance studies -Poplars and elms […]

Report on Forest Research for the year ended March, 1960

The report of Forest Research for the year ending March 1959. The report includesIntroductionSummary of the year’s work Part i Reports of work carried out by Forestry Commission research staff-Forest tree seed investigations -Nursery investigations -Silvicultural investigations in the forest: (a) south and central England and Wales (b) Scotland and northern England-Provenance studies -Poplars and […]

Report on Forest Research for the year ended March, 1960

The report of Forest Research for the year ending March 1959. The report includes: IntroductionSummary of the year’s work Part i Reports of work carried out by Forestry Commission research staff-Forest tree seed investigations -Nursery investigations -Silvicultural investigations in the forest: (a) south and central England and Wales (b) Scotland and northern England-Provenance studies -Poplars […]

[Archive] Forty-first Annual Report of the Forestry Commissioner 1959-1960

Printed by HMSO, for the year ending 30 September 1960.

[Archive] Journal of the Forestry Commission (No.29)

The Forestry Commission Journal was introduced as a way to communicate information on a wide range of topics which could not be communicated through ‘ordinary official channels’, and was intended to be a means of exchanging the opinions and experiences of all members of the staff.This twenty-nineth Journal includes information on: Tours on the West […]

[Archive] Fortieth Annual Report of the Forestry Commissioners 1958-1959

Published by HMSO for the year ending 30 September 1959.

[Archive] Conversion tables for research workers in forestry and agriculture

These tables and charts were prepared by the staff of the Research Branch and by other forest research workers to meet their own needs when preparing data for publication, when meeting foreign visitors and when reading foreign literature. They have been amplified and now are published so that others may avoid the laborious calculations that […]

[Archive] Afforestation of upland heaths

The upland heaths considered in this Bulletin comprise wide stretches of heather-clad land among the hills along the eastern side of Scotland and Northern England.This Bulletin reviews all the experimental work carried out over a period of thirty-six years, from 1921 to 1957. Many methods tried out in the early years have long since been […]

[Archive] The status and development of elm disease in Britain

The discovery of the disease in Britain in 1927, and its persistence here until 1959, have provided certain unique opportunities for its study. The results of this study, with certain necessary references to European and American work, are presented here.

[Archive] Report on Forest Research for the year ended March, 1959

The report of Forest Research for the year ending March 1959. The report includes:IntroductionSummary of the year’s workPart i – Reports of work carried out by Forestry Commission research staff-Forest tree seed investigations-Nursery investigations -Silvicultural investigations in the forest: (a) south and central England and Wales (b) Scotland and -north England-Provenance studies-Poplars and elms -Forest […]

[Archive] Thirty-ninth Annual Report of the Foresty Comissioners 1957-1958

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 30 September 1958.

[Archive] Code of sample plot procedure

The systematic measurement of sample plots in stands of growing timber provides the data for the compilation of yield tables and other estimates of increment which are essential to the economic management of woodlands. In order that such measurements shall be strictly comparable, both as between one sample plot and another, and within the same […]

[Archive] Journal of the Forestry Commission (No.28)

The Forestry Commission Journal was introduced as a way to communicate information on a wide range of topics which could not be communicated through ‘ordinary official channels’, and was intended to be a means of exchanging the opinions and experiences of all members of the staff.This twenty-eighth Journal includes information on: Cartoon: weight lifting or […]

[Archive] Report on Forest Research for the years ending March 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957 and 1958

Report on Forest Research for years ending March 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957 and 1958.

[Archive] Thirty-eight Annual Report of the Forestry Commissioners 1956-1957

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 30 September 1957.

[Archive] Cultivation of the cricket bat willow

Tree willows may be divided into two groups, according to the purpose for which the wood is to be utilised. One group contains trees which are pollarded with a view to the production of poles used principally for hurdles and rough fencing. The other group contains timber of larger size and under this category the […]

[Archive] Forestry Practice (7th edition)

A summary of methods of establishing forest nurseries and plantations with advice on other forestry questions for owners, agents and foresters.

[Archive] Journal of the Forestry Commission (No.27)

The Forestry Commission Journal was introduced as a way to communicate information on a wide range of topics which could not be communicated through ‘ordinary official channels’, and was intended to be a means of exchanging the opinions and experiences of all members of the staff.This twenty-seventh Journal includes information on: Fire cartoon; A visit […]

[Archive] Thirty-seventh Annual Report of the Forestry Commissioners 1955-1956

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 30 September 1956.

[Archive] Sitka spruce in British Columbia: a study in forest relationships

In the spring and summer of 1952 Mr W.R. Day, Lecturer in Forest Pathology at the Imperial Forestry Institute, Oxford, visited British Columbia. His object was to examine the forest relationships of the Sitka spruce in its natural homeland. The main purpose was to study Sitka spruce as an element in the mixed forests in […]

[Archive] Journal of the Forestry Commission (No.26)

The Forestry Commission Journal was introduced as a way to communicate information on a wide range of topics which could not be communicated through ‘ordinary official channels’, and was intended to be a means of exchanging the opinions and experiences of all members of the staff.This twenty-sixth Journal includes information on: Forestry, agriculture, and marginal […]

[Archive] Exotic forest trees in Great Britain

This Bulletin is the response of Great Britain to the request of the Commonwealth Conference to produce a report on exotic trees in the British Isles.

[Archive] Shelterbelts and microclimate

This bulletin discusses the effects which shelterbelts of trees exert on the microclimates of their adjacent regions. Part one consists of a review of available scientific evidence concerning such effects and their influence on agricultural yields and forestry practice. Part two deals with a critical survey of research procedure in connexion with microclimatological investigations of […]

[Archive] Thirty-Sixth Annual Report of the Forestry Commissioners 1954-1955

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 30 September 1955.

[Archive] The dedication of woodlands - principles and procedure

It is calculated that, when hostilities ceased in 1945, there were three million acres of privately owned woodlands in Great Britain and that of this acreage only half was productive; and it is well known that not all the productive woodlands were being efficiently managed to produce timber of the quality or quantity of which […]

[Archive] Adelges insects of silver firs

Insects of the genus Adelges have long been recognised as economically important pests of the valuable timber-producing silver fir trees that comprise the genus Abies. In fact the planting of the common European silver fir, Abies alba, has had to be greatly restricted in Britain because of the depredations of these insects. This Bulletin gives […]

[Archive] Utilisation of hazel coppice

This bulletin presents the results of studies carried out on the rate of growth and yield of coppices of the common hazel, and on the utilisation of hazel poles both by traditional means and by modem technical processes. As hazel occupies over 160,000 acres of woodlands in Great Britain, its proper utilisation, where this is […]

[Archive] Journal of the Forestry Commission (No.25)

The Forestry Commission Journal was introduced as a way to communicate information on a wide range of topics which could not be communicated through ‘ordinary official channels’, and was intended to be a means of exchanging the opinions and experiences of all members of the staff.This twenty-fifth Journal includes information on: A forestry visit to […]

[Archive] Thirty-fifth Annual Report of the Forestry Commissioners 1953-1954

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 30 September 1954.

[Archive] Tree root development on upland heaths

The investigation was initiated by the Forestry Commission as part of the programme of research into the afforestation of heathlands. The object of the investigation was to study the root development of coniferous forest crops on upland heaths to determine: (i) The relationships existing between the development of the root systems, the soils, and the […]

[Archive] Rusts of British forest trees

The rust fungi or Uredinales are an important group of plant parasites, causing great losses to agricultural and forest crops each year. The life cycle of a typical rust is complex, as live types of spores are produced on two different and unrelated hosts, certain of the spore types being always borne on one host […]

[Archive] The volume-basal area line: a study in forest mensuration

This bulletin is a study in forest mensuration which has arisen out of investigations into the timber content of British woodlands. It deals primarily with the relationship that exists between the volume of a tree and its sectional area at breast height; a relationship here called, for convenience, the volume-basal area line. Studies of this […]

[Archive] Studies of North-west American forests in relation to silviculture in Great Britain

During 1952 and 1953, Mr. R. F. Wood, one of the Commission’s forest officers, who had been awarded a Travelling Fellowship by the Nuffield Foundation, visited the forests of British Columbia and the neighbouring territories, to carry out field studies. This region is the home of several trees, such as the Sitka spruce and the […]

[Archive] Journal of the Forestry Commission (No.24)

The Forestry Commission Journal was introduced as a way to communicate information on a wide range of topics which could not be communicated through ‘ordinary official channels’, and was intended to be a means of exchanging the opinions and experiences of all members of the staff.This twenty-fourth Journal includes information on: The forests of Sicily; […]

[Archive] Thirthy-fourth Annual Report of the Forestry Commissioners 1952-1953

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 30 September 1953.

[Archive] Experiments in tree planting on peat

This Bulletin summarises the results of numerous experiments carried out in various parts of the country, experiments which have dealt, mainly, with methods of establishing crops of trees on peat.

[Archive] Mull and mor formation in relation to forest soils

This bulletin presents the results of researches carried out at the Imperial Forestry Institute, Oxford, between 1948 and 1953. It deals with the processes that go on when organic material decays in the soil.

[Archive] Journal of the Forestry Commission (No.23)

The Forestry Commission Journal was introduced as a way to communicate information on a wide range of topics which could not be communicated through ‘ordinary official channels’, and was intended to be a means of exchanging the opinions and experiences of all members of the staff.This twenty-third Journal includes information on: Lord Robinson, O.B.E; Notes […]

[Archive] Report on Forest Research for the year ending March, 1953

The report of Forest Research for the year ending March 1953. The report includes:IntroductionSummary of the year’s workPart i: Work carried out by forestry commission staff-Forest tree seed investigations-Experimental work in nurseries -Silvicultural investigations in the forest–Rhododendron ponticum in British woodlands-Survey of tree growth on colliery spoil heaps-Investigations into damage by the gale of January […]

[Archive] Thirty-third Annual Report of the Forestry Commissioners 1951-1952

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 30 September 1952.

[Archive] Studies on British beechwoods

This bulletin presents the results of a comprehensive survey of British beechwoods carried out by Mr J.M.B. Brown, B.Sc., during the years 1948 to 1950. The importance of the beech in our woodlands is generally realised, and it is hoped that these studies will prove of value to all concerned with its silviculture.

[Archive] Report on Forest research for the year ending March 1952

The report of Forest Research for the year ending March 1952. The report includes:IntroductionSummary of the year’s work Part i: work carried out by Forestry Commission staff– Forest tree seed investigations– Experimental work in nurseries– Work on problems of afforestation in Scotland and northern England – The 1945 broom and pine nursing experiments at Coldharbour, […]

[Archive] History of Edgarhope forest 1929 -1951

A history of Edgarhope forest containing the Director’s comments, comments by the State Forests Conservator, general description of the forest, silviculture, and appendices.

[Archive] History of Twiglees forest 1938 - 1952

A history of Twiglees forest containing Chairman’s comments, comments by Conservator of State Forests, general description of the forest, silviculture, and appendices.

[Archive] History of Gwydyr forest 1920 - 1951

A history of Hafod Fawr forest containing Chairman’s comments, Chairman’s note, general description of the forest, silviculture, and appendices.

[Archive] History of Kirroughtree forest 1930 - 1951

A history of Kirroughtree forest containing Chairman’s comments, observations by the Conservator of State Forests, general description of the forest, silviculture, and appendices.

[Archive] History of Hamsterley forest 1927 - 1951

A history of Hamsterley forest containing Chairman’s comments, Conservator’s comments, general description of the forest, silviculture, and appendices.

[Archive] History of Clocaenog forest 1930 - 1952

A history of Clocaenog forest containing the Chairman’s comments, a general description of the forest, silviculture, Conservator’s comments and appendices.

[Archive] History of Delamere forest 1924 - 1951

A history of Delamere forest containing the Chairman’s comments, a general description of the forest, silviculture, and appendices.

[Archive] History of Clipstone forest 1928 - 1951

A history of Clipstone forest containing the Chairman’s comments, a general description of the area, silviculture, and appendices.

[Archive] History of Clashindarroch forest 1929 - 1951

A history of Clashindarroch forest containing Chairman’s comments, comments by State Forests Officer, general description of the forest, silviculture, and appendices.

[Archive] History of Langdale forest 1934 - 1951

A history of Langdale forest containing Chairman’s comments, a general description of the forest, silviculture, and appendices.

[Archive] history of Hemsted forest 1924 - 1951

A history of Hamsted forest containing a general description of the forest, silviculture, and appendices.

[Archive] Thirty-second Annual Report of the Forestry Commissioners 1950-1951

Published by HMSO, for the year ending 30 September 1951.

[Archive] History of Kerry forest 1923 - 1951

A history of Kerry forest containing the Chairman’s comments, a general description of the area, silviculture, and appendices.

[Archive] History of Newcastleton forest 1920 - 1951

A history of Newcastelton forest containing the Chairman’s comments, a general description of the area, silviculture, and appendices.

[Archive] History of Harwood forest 1929 - 1952

A history of Harwood forest containing a general description of the forest, silviculture, and appendices.

[Archive] History of Ampleforth Forest 1928 - 1951

A history of Ampleforth forest containing Chairman’s comments, note by State Forests Officer, general description of the forest, silviculture, and appendices.

[Archive] History of Ampthill Forest 1920 - 1951

A history of Ampthill forest containing Chairman’s comments, general description of the forest, silviculture, addendum by district officer, and appendices.

[Archive] History of Craigphadrig forest 1925 - 1951

A history of Craigphadrig forest containing a general description of the area, silviculture, and appendices.

[Archive] History of the Black Isle forests 1926 - 1951

A history of the Black Isle forests containing the Chairman’s comments, a general description of the forest, silviculture, and appendices.

[Archive] Poplars

This Bulletin endeavours to fill in the gaps in our knowledge of poplar cultivation. The choice of varieties is bewildering, and is becoming rapidly more so as new hybrids are produced.

[Archive] History of Ardgarten 1924 - 1951

A history of Ardgarten forest containing a general description of the forest, silviculture, and appendices.

[Archive] History of Arkengarthdale Forest 1932 - 1951

A history of Arkengarthdale forest containing a general description of the forest, silviculture, and appendices.

[Archive] History of Auchenroddan Forest 1931 - 1951

A history of Auchenroddan forest containing a general description of the forest, silviculture, and appendices.

[Archive] History of Barcaldine Forest 1924 - 1951

A history of Barcaldine forest containing a general description of the forest, silviculture, and appendices.

[Archive] History of Bardney Forest 1932 - 1951

A history of Bardney forest containing a general description of the forest, silviculture, and appendices.

[Archive] History of Bramshill Forest 1921 - 1952

A history of Bramshill forest containing a general description of the forest, silviculture, and appendices.</